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In parallel with the increasing popularity of online games, researchers have reported an increasing number of problematic users. For this reason there is a growing amount of literature analyzing the effects of online games. The present review described the evolution of online games as well as their types and specific characteristics of these types. This(More)
Although the majority of research focuses on the risks and disadvantages of online gaming, the present authors suggest that online games also represent new ways of satisfying basic human needs within the conditions of modern society. The aim of our present study was to reveal and operationalize the components of the motivational basis of online gaming. A(More)
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is the endogenous ligand for the N/OFQ peptide receptor (NOP). Binding studies have relied on [leucyl-3H]N/OFQ, but as this is an agonist G-protein coupling will affect affinity. In this paper, we describe a new [3H]labeled NOP antagonist, [Nphe1,4’-3H-Phe4,Arg14,Lys15]N/OFQ-NH2 ([3H]UFP-101). We have characterized [3H]UFP-101(More)
The Derogatis symptom checklist (SCL-90-R) and its short version, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), are widely used instruments, despite the fact that their factor structures were not clearly confirmed. The goals of this research were to compare four measurement models of these instruments including one-factor, nine-factor, a second-ordered factor model(More)
BACKGROUND Online gaming has become increasingly popular. However, this has led to concerns that these games might induce serious problems and/or lead to dependence for a minority of players. AIM The aim of this study was to uncover and operationalize the components of problematic online gaming. METHODS A total of 3415 gamers (90% males; mean age 21(More)
The effects of the antidiuretic (V(2)) non-peptide receptor antagonist OPC-31260 on the plasma vasopressin level and the biological half-life and organ distribution of radiochemically pure, biologically active [(3)H]8-arginine vasopressin [spec. act.: 15.9 mCi/mmol (588 GBq/mmol)] were studied in Wistar rats. The plasma vasopressin level increased(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to test the structure and endorsement of drinking motives and their links to alcohol use among 11- to 19-year-olds from 13 European countries. METHOD Confirmatory factor analysis, latent growth curves, and multiple regression models were conducted, based on a sample of 33,813 alcohol-using students from Belgium,(More)
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is the endogenous ligand for the N/OFQ receptor (NOP), whose characteristics in the dog are unknown. We therefore compared [(3)H]N/OFQ binding in dog and rat brain membranes. Radioligand saturation/competition studies with these membranes and leucyl-[(3)H]N/OFQ(1-17)OH or the novel radioligand [(3)H]N/OFQ(1-13)NH(2) were(More)
The use of substances to enhance human abilities is a constant and cross-cultural feature in the evolution of humanity. Although much has changed over time, the availability on the Internet, often supported by misleading marketing strategies, has made their use even more likely and risky. This paper will explore the case of Mitragyna speciosa Korth.(More)
There is an ongoing debate in the literature whether problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic online gaming (POG) are two distinct conceptual and nosological entities or whether they are the same. The present study contributes to this question by examining the interrelationship and the overlap between PIU and POG in terms of sex, school achievement,(More)