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Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is characterized by chromatin relaxation of the D4Z4 macrosatellite array on chromosome 4 and expression of the D4Z4-encoded DUX4 gene in skeletal muscle. The more common form, autosomal dominant FSHD1, is caused by contraction of the D4Z4 array, whereas the genetic determinants and inheritance of D4Z4 array(More)
Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal dominant muscular dystrophy in which no mutation of pathogenic gene(s) has been identified. Instead, the disease is, in most cases, genetically linked to a contraction in the number of 3.3 kb D4Z4 repeats on chromosome 4q. How contraction of the 4qter D4Z4 repeats causes muscular dystrophy is not(More)
Glucocorticoids, secreted by the adrenals in response to stress, profoundly affect structure and plasticity of neurons. Glucocorticoid action in neurons is mediated by glucocorticoid receptors (GR) that operate as transcription factors in the regulation of gene expression and either bind directly to genomic glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) or(More)
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD: MIM#158900) is a common myopathy with marked but largely unexplained clinical inter- and intra-familial variability. It is caused by contractions of the D4Z4 repeat array on chromosome 4 to 1-10 units (FSHD1), or by mutations in the D4Z4-binding chromatin modifier SMCHD1 (FSHD2). Both situations lead to a(More)
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1 (FSHD1) is caused by contraction of the D4Z4 repeat array on chromosome 4 to a size of 1-10 units. The residual number of D4Z4 units inversely correlates with clinical severity, but significant clinical variability exists. Each unit contains a copy of the DUX4 retrogene. Repeat contractions are associated with(More)
Autosomal-recessive immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, and facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome is mainly characterized by recurrent, often fatal, respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. About 50% of patients carry mutations in the DNA methyltransferase 3B gene (DNMT3B) (ICF1). The remaining patients carry unknown genetic defects (ICF2) but share(More)
Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is caused by decreased epigenetic repression of the D4Z4 macrosatellite array and recent studies have shown that this results in the expression of low levels of the DUX4 mRNA in skeletal muscle. Several other mechanisms have been suggested for FSHD pathophysiology and it remains unknown whether DUX4 expression can(More)
Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most prevalent muscular dystrophies. The majority of FSHD cases are linked to a decreased copy number of D4Z4 macrosatellite repeats on chromosome 4q (FSHD1). Less than 5% of FSHD cases have no repeat contraction (FSHD2), most of which are associated with mutations of SMCHD1. FSHD is associated with the(More)
Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is associated with somatic chromatin relaxation of the D4Z4 repeat array and derepression of the D4Z4-encoded DUX4 retrogene coding for a germline transcription factor. Somatic DUX4 derepression is caused either by a 1-10 unit repeat-array contraction (FSHD1) or by mutations in SMCHD1, which encodes a chromatin repressor(More)
The most common form of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is caused by a genetic contraction of the polymorphic D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat array in the subtelomeric region of chromosome 4q. In some studies, genes centromeric to the D4Z4 repeat array have been reported to be over-expressed in FSHD, including FRG1 and FRG2, presumably due to(More)