Jude Ezeh Uzonna

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An unresolved issue in the field of T helper (Th) cell development relates to the findings that low doses of antigen promote Th2 cell development in vitro, whereas several classic in vivo studies suggest the opposite. Here we resolve this paradox by studying the early immune response in mice after infection with different doses of Leishmania major. We found(More)
The complicated interactions between Leishmania and the host antigen-presenting cells (APCs) have fundamental effects on the final outcome of the disease. Two major APCs, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), play critical roles in mediating resistance and susceptibility during Leishmania infection. Macrophages are the primary resident cell for Leishmania:(More)
Although a great deal of knowledge has been gained from studies on the immunobiology of leishmaniasis, there is still no universally acceptable, safe, and effective vaccine against the disease. This strongly suggests that we still do not completely understand the factors that control and/or regulate the development and sustenance of anti-Leishmania(More)
BACKGROUND Trypanosoma congolense are extracellular and intravascular blood parasites that cause debilitating acute or chronic disease in cattle and other domestic animals. Diminazene aceturate (Berenil) has been widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent for trypanosomiasis in livestock since 1955. As in livestock, treatment of infected highly susceptible(More)
BACKGROUND BALB/c mice are highly susceptible while C57BL/6 are relatively resistant to experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection. Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to regulate the pathogenesis of experimental T. congolense infection, their exact role remains controversial. We wished to determine whether Tregs contribute to distinct(More)
Although it is generally believed that CD4(+) T cells play important roles in anti-Leishmania immunity, some studies suggest that they may be dispensable, and that MHC II-restricted CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) (double negative, DN) T cells may be more important in regulating primary anti-Leishmania immunity. In addition, while there are reports of increased numbers(More)
We previously showed that CD8+ T cells are required for optimal primary immunity to low dose Leishmania major infection. However, it is not known whether immunity induced by low dose infection is durable and whether CD8+ T cells contribute to secondary immunity following recovery from low dose infection. Here, we compared primary and secondary immunity to(More)
Despite inducing very low IFN-γ response and highly attenuated in vivo, infection of mice with phosphoglycan (PG) deficient Leishmania major (lpg2-) induces protection against virulent L. major challenge. Here, we show that mice infected with lpg2- L. major generate Leishmania-specific memory T cells. However, in vitro and in vivo proliferation, IL-10 and(More)
BALB/c mice are highly susceptible while C57BL/6 mice are relatively resistant to experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection. Several reports show that an early interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) response in infected mice is critically important for resistance via the activation of macrophages and production of nitric oxide (NO). NO is a pivotal effector molecule(More)
Pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites, possess specific molecules or proteins that are recognized by several host innate immune receptors, leading to the activation of several intracellular signaling molecules and pathways. The magnitude and quality of these events significantly affect the outcome of infection. African trypanosomes, including(More)