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Successful intracellular pathogens must evade or neutralize the innate immune defenses of their host cells and render the cellular environment permissive for replication. For example, to replicate efficiently in CD4(+) T lymphocytes, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes a protein called viral infectivity factor (Vif) that promotes(More)
Restriction factors, such as the retroviral complementary DNA deaminase APOBEC3G, are cellular proteins that dominantly block virus replication. The AIDS virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), produces the accessory factor Vif, which counteracts the host's antiviral defence by hijacking a ubiquitin ligase complex, containing CUL5, ELOC, ELOB(More)
Development of the unisexual maize inflorescences requires the abortion of pistillate primordia in the florets of the developing tassel and the arrest of staminate primordia in the florets of the developing ears. Mutations of many genes that lie within this sexual differentiation pathway, such as tasselseed1 (ts1), or that influence this pathway, such as(More)
The DNA deaminase APOBEC3G converts cytosines to uracils in retroviral cDNA, which are immortalized as genomic strand G-to-A hypermutations by reverse transcription. A single round of APOBEC3G-dependent mutagenesis can be catastrophic, but evidence suggests that sublethal levels contribute to viral genetic diversity and the associated problems of drug(More)
Members of the APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like) protein family catalyze DNA cytosine deamination and underpin a variety of immune defenses. For instance, several family members, including APOBEC3B (A3B), elicit strong retrotransposon and retrovirus restriction activities. However, unlike the other proteins, A3B is(More)
Cellular proteins called "restriction factors" can serve as powerful blockades to HIV replication, but the virus possesses elaborate strategies to circumvent these barriers. First, we discuss general hallmarks of a restriction factor. Second, we review how the viral Vif protein protects the viral genome from lethal levels of cDNA deamination by promoting(More)
Viruses are obligate parasites and thus require the machinery of the host cell to replicate. Inhibition of host factors co-opted during active infection is a strategy hosts use to suppress viral replication and a potential pan-antiviral therapy. To define the cellular proteins and processes required for a virus during infection is thus crucial to(More)
The Vif protein of HIV-1 allows virus replication by degrading several members of the host-encoded APOBEC3 family of DNA cytosine deaminases. Polymorphisms in both host APOBEC3 genes and the viral vif gene have the potential to impact the extent of virus replication among individuals. The most genetically diverse of the seven human APOBEC3 genes is APOBEC3H(More)
HIV-1 requires the cellular transcription factor CBFβ to stabilize its accessory protein Vif and promote APOBEC3G degradation. Here, we demonstrate that both isoforms of CBFβ allow for increased steady-state levels of Vif, enhanced APOBEC3G degradation, and increased viral infectivity. This conserved functional interaction enhances the steady-state levels(More)
Tandem stop mutations K26X and H27X in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vif compromise virus replication in human T-cell lines that stably express APOBEC3F (A3F) or APOBEC3G (A3G). We previously reported that partial resistance to A3G could develop in these Vif-deficient viruses through a nucleotide A200-to-T/C transversion and a vpr null(More)