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The hippocampus plays a crucial role in learning and memory, and neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus contributes to learning deficits. Metabolism problems in pregnancy related to excessive fuel consumption (e.g., high fat, high sugar) may influence cognitive and behavioral functions in the offspring by affecting developing brain cells. This study(More)
Previous studies have suggested that prenatal exposure to nicotine is associated with abnormal development in fetuses, including fetal brain damage. The present study determined the effect of maternal administration of nicotine during different gestational periods on brain nicotine receptor subunits in fetal rats. Subcutaneous injections of nicotine in(More)
AIMS Hypoxia has adverse effects on renal development. This study was the first to test hypoxia-induced renal autophagy in rat fetuses. METHODS Pregnant rats were exposed to hypoxia or normoxia during pregnancy and fetal kidneys were collected at gestation day 21. RESULTS Fetal kidney weight and ratio of kidney-body weight were reduced. Histological(More)
AIMS Maternal cigarette smoking accompanied with fetal and neonatal growth restriction causes abnormalities in organ development in the postnatal life. The present study determined the effect of maternal administration of nicotine on the development of the kidney in rats by examining the expression of renal angiotensin II receptors at mRNA and protein(More)
OBJECTIVES High-salt intake has been demonstrated in link to hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases could be programmed in fetal origins. We determined the influence of high-salt diet during pregnancy on the development of the heart. METHODS Fetal cardiac structures, cell cycle, renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and epigenetic alternations in the heart(More)
Large studies in humans and animals have demonstrated a clear association of an adverse intrauterine environment with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Yet mechanisms remain largely elusive. The present study tested the hypothesis that gestational hypoxia leads to promoter hypermethylation and epigenetic repression of the(More)
Although a number of studies have shown neural, hormonal, and behavioral capabilities in the control of body fluid regulation under conditions of dehydration in adults, limited information is available on the development of fetal functional abilities in response to osmotic challenge in rats. This study was performed to investigate the influence of maternal(More)
A number of studies have demonstrated the influence of nicotine on fetal development. This study determined the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), and high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1) in the forebrain and hindbrain following chronic prenatal nicotine exposure in the rat fetus (maternal rats(More)
SCOPE High-salt (HS) intake is linked to hypertension, and prenatal exposure to maternal HS diets may have long-term impact on cardiovascular systems. The relationship between HS diets and cardiovascular disease has received extensive attention. This study determined pressor responses and microvessel functions in the adult offspring rats exposed to prenatal(More)
Herbal products have been used as conventional medicines for thousands of years, particularly in Eastern countries. Thousands of clinical and experimental investigations have focused on the effects and mechanisms-of-action of herbal medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Considering the history of clinical practice and the great(More)