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Assessing treatment effects in observational studies is a multifaceted problem that not only involves heterogeneous mechanisms of how the treatment or cause is exposed to subjects, known as propensity , but also differential causal effects across sub-populations. We introduce a concept termed the facilitating score to account for both the confounding and(More)
Dietary intervention trials aim to change dietary patterns of individuals. Participating in such trials could impact dietary self-report in divergent ways: Dietary counseling and training on portion-size estimation could improve self-report accuracy; participant burden could increase systematic error. Such intervention-associated biases could complicate(More)
This paper is concerned with developing rules for assignment of tooth prognosis based on actual tooth loss in the VA Dental Longitudinal Study. It is also of interest to rank the relative importance of various clinical factors for tooth loss. A multivariate survival tree procedure is proposed. The procedure is built on a parametric exponential frailty(More)
PURPOSE To test the hypothesis that specific locations and patterns of threshold findings within the visual field have predictive value for progressive glaucomatous optic neuropathy (pGON). METHODS Age-adjusted standard automated perimetry thresholds, along with other clinical variables gathered at the initial examination of 168 individuals with high-risk(More)
OBJECTIVE To report the impact of visual field quality control (QC) procedures on the rates of visual field unreliability, test parameter errors, and visual field defects attributed to testing artifacts in the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS). METHODS OHTS technicians were certified for perimetry and were required to submit 2 sets of visual(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate whether baseline visual field data and asymmetries between eyes predict the onset of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS) participants. METHODS A new index, mean prognosis (MP), was designed for optimal combination of visual field thresholds, to discriminate between eyes that developed POAG(More)
Online receding horizon controller based on the principle of predictive control for parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle is proposed in this paper. First of all, the structure of Hybrid Electric Vehicles is introduced, and the model of batteries and engine, etc is established. Secondly the energy management strategies based on predictive control algorithm is(More)
Despite modern combination antiretroviral therapy, distal neuropathic pain (DNP) continues to affect many individuals with HIV infection. We evaluated risk factors for new-onset DNP in the CNS Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) study, an observational cohort. Standardized, semiannual clinical evaluations were administered at 6 US sites.(More)