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American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is an important herb that is cultivated in China, North American, and South Korea. It is propagated from seed, but the seed has deep dormancy characteristics described as morphophysiological dormancy. Two-stage temperature stratification, a warm (15-20°C) and cold (2°C) stratification period of 6 months, has been(More)
Antidepressants have been widely used to treat neuropathic pain for many years. However, the mechanisms of their analgesic actions are little known and remain controvertible. Recent studies indicate that cytokines in central nervous system (CNS) play a critical role in the pathological states of pain. The present study was designed to explore the effects(More)
Recent studies have characterized a central nervous system neuroimmune effect in the analgesic mechanisms of antidepressants. Our study investigated the effect of a novel antidepressant mirtazapine on pro-inflammatory cytokines expression and astrocytic activation in hippocampus of neuropathic rats. L5 spinal nerve transection was made to produce(More)
BACKGROUND Over the last decade, a few studies have investigated the possible adverse effects of ambient air pollution on preterm birth. However, the correlation between them still remains unclear, due to insufficient evidences. METHODS The correlation between air pollution and preterm birth in Guangzhou city was examined by using the Generalized Additive(More)
BACKGROUND Pain on injection is an acknowledged adverse effect (AE) of propofol administration for the induction of general anesthesia. Flurbiprofen axetil has been reported to reduce the pain of injection. However, results of published papers on the efficacy of flurbiprofen axetil in managing pain on injection of propofol are inconsistent. (More)
BACKGROUND Although photoplethysmography and cerebral state index (CSI) have been used as indices in monitoring vital signs perioperatively, there are only a few reports comparing the performance of photoplethysmography with CSI in monitoring anaesthesia depth. The aim of the present study was to clarify features of photoplethysmography in monitoring(More)
BACKGROUND Using a rat L5 spinal nerve transection model we previously showed that pentoxifylline prevents hyperalgesia through antiinflammation in the prefrontal brain. In this study, we examined efficacy when applied after injury. METHODS We examined the effect of pentoxifylline on existing mechanical allodynia, observing glial activation and(More)
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