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"Resting-state" or task-free fMRI can assess intrinsic connectivity network (ICN) integrity in health and disease, suggesting a potential for use of these methods as disease-monitoring biomarkers. Numerous analytical options are available, including model-driven ROI-based correlation analysis and model-free, independent component analysis (ICA). High(More)
This paper unifies our earlier work on detection of brain activation (Rajapakse and Piyaratna, 2001) and connectivity (Rajapakse and Zhou, 2007) in a probabilistic framework for analyzing effective connectivity among activated brain regions from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Interactions among brain regions are expressed by a dynamic(More)
The effects of age on functional connectivity (FC) of intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) have largely been derived from cross-sectional studies. Far less is known about longitudinal changes in FC and how they relate to ageing-related cognitive decline. We evaluated intra- and inter-network FC in 78 healthy older adults two or three times over a period(More)
Slower processing speed (PS), a highly robust feature of cognitive aging, is associated with white matter (WM) deterioration and gray matter volume (GMV) loss. Traditional linear regression models assume a constant relationship between brain structure and cognition over time. To probe for variation in the association between WM and GMV and PS over time, we(More)
This paper presents the design and implementation of Geosphere, a physical- and link-layer design for access point-based MIMO wireless networks that consistently improves network throughput. To send multiple streams of data in a MIMO system, prior designs rely on a technique called zero-forcing, a way of "nulling" the interference between data streams by(More)