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How do income shocks a¤ect armed con ‡ict? Theory suggests two opposite e¤ects. If labor is used to appropriate resources violently, higher wages may lower con ‡ict by reducing labor supplied to appropriation. This is the opportunity cost e¤ect. Alternatively, a rise in contestable income may increase violence by raising gains from appropriation. This is(More)
Idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis is an infrequent chronic inflammatory process of unknown etiology which causes thickening of the dura mater and progressive neurologic alterations due to the compression of adjacent structures. A case is presented of an adult woman with a clinical syndrome consisting of headache, progressive visual loss and(More)
We present a detailed, high-frequency data set on the civil conflict in Colombia during the period 1988-2002. We briefly introduce the Colombian case and the methodological issues that hinder data collection in civil wars, before presenting the pattern over time of conflict actions and intensity for all sides involved in the confrontation. We also describe(More)
OBJECTIVE The Non-pneumatic Antishock Garment (NASG) is a compression device that has shown significantly decreased blood loss in cases of obstetric hemorrhage. However, there are no physiologic studies of the NASG in postpartum women. This study used Doppler ultrasound to measure the resistive index (RI) in the internal iliac artery, thus approximating(More)
A subcostal transversus abdominis plane (TAP) phenol injection was performed on a patient with refractory cancer pain due a metastatic involvement of the abdominal wall. A diagnostic block with local anesthetic was performed under ultrasound guidance (USG), resulting in a decrease of 80% and 100% in dynamic and static visual analog scale (VAS) for pain,(More)
The growing empirical literature on the analysis of civil war has recently included the study of conflict duration at the crosscountry level. This paper presents, for the first time, a within-country analysis of the determinants of violence duration. I focus on the experience of the Colombian armed conflict. While the conflict has been active for about five(More)
– Optimal operation of a country's air transport infrastructure plays a major role in the economic development of nations. Due to the increasing use of air transportation in today's world, flights' boarding times have become a concern for both airlines and airports, thus the importance of knowing beforehand how changes in flights demand parameters and(More)