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The oxygen paradox tells us that oxygen is both necessary for aerobic life and toxic to all life forms. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) touch every biological and medical discipline, especially those involving proliferative status, supporting the idea that active oxygen may be increased in tumor cells. In fact, metabolism of oxygen and the resulting toxic(More)
Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway that, in plants, occurs in both the cytosol and the plastids. The glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the conversion of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate with concomitant reduction of NAD(+) to NADH. Both cytosolic (GAPCs) and plastidial (GAPCps) GAPDH activities(More)
Cancer cells require a robust supply of reduced nitrogen to produce nucleotides, non-essential amino acids and a high cellular redox activity. Glutamine provides a major substrate for respiration as well as nitrogen for the production of proteins, hexosamines, and macromolecules. Therefore, glutamine is one of key molecules in cancer metabolism during cell(More)
It is fascinating that a relatively simple amino acid like glutamine is involved in such large variety of cellular reactions. Glutamine is required for nitrogen-stimulated proliferation in many cells, but glutamine stimulates not only the growth of cells but also the expression of surface antigens, the formation of cytokines, the synthesis of heat shock(More)
This study characterizes the phosphorylated pathway of Ser biosynthesis (PPSB) in Arabidopsis thaliana by targeting phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP1), the last enzyme of the pathway. Lack of PSP1 activity delayed embryo development, leading to aborted embryos that could be classified as early curled cotyledons. The embryo-lethal phenotype of psp1 mutants(More)
Mitochondrial-inner-membrane vesicles, isolated from Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells by titration with detergents, accumulated L-glutamine by a very efficient transport system. The vesicles lack any phosphate-activated glutaminase activity, allowing measurement of transport rates without interference by L-glutamine metabolism. The time course of the(More)
We developed procedures for in vitro cloning of Cedrus atlantica Manetti and C. libani A. Rich explants from juvenile and mature plants. Explant size was one determinant of the frequency of axillary bud break in both species. Shoot tips and nodal explants mainly developed calli, whereas bud sprouting occurred in defoliated microcuttings cultured on a(More)
Oxidative stress can be defined as the imbalance between cellular oxidant species production and antioxidant capability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in a variety of different cellular processes ranging from apoptosis and necrosis to cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. In fact, molecular events, such as induction of cell proliferation,(More)
Glutamine is an essential amino acid in cancer cells and is required for the growth of many other cell types. Glutaminase activity is positively correlated with malignancy in tumours and with growth rate in normal cells. In the present work, Ehrlich ascites tumour cells, and their derivative, 0.28AS-2 cells, expressing antisense glutaminase mRNA, were(More)
In mammals, there are two different genes encoding for glutaminase isoforms, named liver (LGA) and kidney (KGA) types. LGA has long been believed to be present only in liver mitochondria from adult animals. However, we have recently reported the presence of LGA mRNA in human brain. We now describe the expression of LGA mRNA in the brain of other mammals(More)