Juan S. Leon

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Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, may induce antibodies and T cells reactive with self antigens (autoimmunity). Because autoimmunity is generally thought to develop during the chronic phase of infection, one hypothesis is that autoimmunity develops only after long-term, low-level stimulation of self-reactive cells. However,(More)
Norovirus immunity is poorly understood as the limited data available on protection after infection are often contradictory. In contrast to the more prominent GII noroviruses, GI norovirus infections are less frequent in outbreaks. The GI noroviruses display very complex patterns of heterotypic immune responses following infection, and many individuals are(More)
To examine the long-term infectivity of human norovirus in water, 13 study subjects were challenged at different time points with groundwater spiked with the prototype human norovirus, Norwalk virus. Norwalk virus spiked in groundwater remained infectious after storage at room temperature in the dark for 61 days (the last time point tested). The Norwalk(More)
Contamination of oysters with human noroviruses (HuNoV) constitutes a human health risk and may lead to severe economic losses in the shellfish industry. There is a need to identify a technology that can inactivate HuNoV in oysters. In this study, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded clinical trial to assess the effect of high hydrostatic pressure(More)
OBJECTIVE In Latin America and the Caribbean, Bolivia has the third highest rate of mortality among children under five years of age (57 per 1 000), with 14.0% of under-five deaths attributable to diarrhea. Because a child's world is predominantly controlled by and experienced through his or her mother, this investigation aims to understand what maternal(More)
To determine the burden of norovirus infections in children stools from a longitudinal community cohort were evaluated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Norovirus was detected in 21.3% of diarrheal and 8.0% of nondiarrheal stools (P < 0.01). Norovirus diarrhea was highly associated with age and the odds ratio for norovirus diarrhea fell(More)
BACKGROUND Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most common cause of epidemic gastroenteritis; however, the relative impacts of individual factors underlying severe illness are poorly understood. This report reviews published NoV outbreak reports to quantify hospitalization and mortality rates and assess their relationship with outbreak setting, transmission route,(More)
Myocarditis is a disease whose pathogenesis is not completely understood and whose prevalence is likely underestimated. Individuals afflicted with this condition may be treated with agents that relieve symptoms arising from inflammation and concurrent cellular damage. One class of drugs commonly used in the treatment of myocarditis includes the angiotensin(More)
Chagas heart disease develops in approximately one-third of individuals infected with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Among the many possible mechanisms responsible for this illness, an autoimmune mechanism has received much experimental support during the past several decades. Initial observations of the absence or near absence of parasites from(More)