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Retroviral capsid proteins are conserved structurally but assemble into different morphologies. The mature human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) capsid is best described by a 'fullerene cone' model, in which hexamers of the capsid protein are linked to form a hexagonal surface lattice that is closed by incorporating 12 capsid-protein pentamers. HIV-1(More)
Seizures are increasingly understood to arise from epileptogenic networks across which ictal activity is propagated and sustained. In patients undergoing invasive monitoring for epilepsy surgery, high frequency oscillations have been observed within the seizure onset zone during both ictal and interictal intervals. We hypothesized that the patterns by which(More)
Connecting dynamics to structural data from diverse experimental sources, molecular dynamics simulations permit the exploration of biological phenomena in unparalleled detail. Advances in simulations are moving the atomic resolution descriptions of biological systems into the million-to-billion atom regime, in which numerous cell functions reside. In this(More)
Chemotactic responses in bacteria require large, highly ordered arrays of sensory proteins to mediate the signal transduction that ultimately controls cell motility. A mechanistic understanding of the molecular events underlying signaling, however, has been hampered by the lack of a high-resolution structural description of the extended array. Here, we(More)
Defining the molecular interaction between Gag proteins in an assembled hexagonal lattice of immature retrovirus particles is crucial for elucidating the mechanisms of virus assembly and maturation. Recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy have yielded subnanometer structural information on the morphology of immature Gag lattices, making computational(More)
Adenylate kinase (AdK), a phosphotransferase enzyme, plays an important role in cellular energy homeostasis. It undergoes a large conformational change between an open and a closed state, even in the absence of substrate. We investigate the apo-AdK transition at the atomic level both with free-energy calculations and with our new dynamic importance sampling(More)
— Retroviruses are pathogens characterized by their ability to incorporate viral DNA into a host cell's genome. Retroviruses like Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV) infect cells during mitosis, when the chromatin is exposed to the cytoplasm. Conversely, the genus of lentiviruses, like the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), have evolved to infect non-dividing cells(More)
The host cell factor cyclophilin A (CypA) interacts directly with the HIV-1 capsid and regulates viral infectivity. Although the crystal structure of CypA in complex with the N-terminal domain of the HIV-1 capsid protein (CA) has been known for nearly two decades, how CypA interacts with the viral capsid and modulates HIV-1 infectivity remains unclear. We(More)
Retroviral capsid cores are proteinaceous containers that self-assemble to encase the viral genome and a handful of proteins that promote infection. Their function is to protect and aid in the delivery of viral genes to the nucleus of the host, and, in many cases, infection pathways are influenced by capsid-cellular interactions. From a mathematical(More)
Host factor protein Cyclophilin A (CypA) regulates HIV-1 viral infectivity through direct interactions with the viral capsid, by an unknown mechanism. CypA can either promote or inhibit viral infection, depending on host cell type and HIV-1 capsid (CA) protein sequence. We have examined the role of conformational dynamics on the nanosecond to millisecond(More)