Juan R. Lander

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Although EMLA is known to be an effective topical anesthetic, its rate of success is unknown. Indeed, researchers have suggested that EMLA may fail with young and apprehensive children. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to assess EMLA's rate of success as well as factors which predict success. A double-blind, placebo-controlled design was(More)
Examined venipuncture pain and anxiety among 90 male and 90 female children and adolescents (5 to 17 years) who were attending a hospital laboratory. The purpose of the study was to assess sex differences in pain. Ss reported state anxiety and expected pain prior to having venipuncture and sensory and affective pain following venipuncture. Analysis of data(More)
Children's strategies for coping with the pain and distress of venipuncture were examined in this descriptive study. Eighty-five children (aged 5-13 years) were interviewed prior to and following blood collection. Prior to the procedure, children reported pain expectations and coping strategies that might be used. Self-reports of the pain experienced and(More)
A cross-sectional study of venipuncture pain and anxiety was conducted with 180 consecutively referred children and their parents. Analysis indicated that younger children report more venipuncture pain than older children. Anxiety was related to both age and pain. As well, anxiety was lowest among children with no previous venipuncture experience and among(More)
A cross-sectional descriptive design was utilized to explore expected, experienced and recalled pain, and anxiety. Subjects were 138 children (5-17 yr) who were attending an outpatient laboratory for venipuncture. They reported state anxiety and expected visual analogue scale pain prior to having venipuncture. Following venipuncture, they reported sensory(More)
Anxiety is an important component of children's pain and is routinely assessed in pain research. Two forms of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory have been used frequently by researchers investigating children's pain and state anxiety (form C-1 and Y-1). We were unable to find psychometric information about this tool when used with a population of(More)
From research reports published over the last 20 years, it appears that moderate to severe uncontrolled pain may be the norm for hospitalized patients despite recent advances in the management of pain. Research on the extent of under-management of pain and the factors associated with it is examined and summarized in this paper. Methodological imperfections(More)