Learn More
Glaucoma is a disease in which retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) die leading ultimately to blindness. Over the past decade and a half, information has begun to emerge regarding specific molecular responses of the retina to conditions of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). It is now clear that the state of the RGC in glaucoma depends on a balance of(More)
Reactive gliosis is a complex process that involves changes in gene expression and morphological remodeling. The mouse optic nerve, where astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes interact with retinal ganglion cell axons and each other, is a particularly suitable model for studying the molecular mechanisms of reactive gliosis. We triggered gliosis at the(More)
The urinary bladder is innervated by parasympathetic preganglionic neurons (PPNs) that express μ-opioid receptors (MOR) in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus (SPN) at lumbosacral segments L6-S1. The SPN also contains endomorphin 2 (EM2)-immunoreactive (IR) fibers and terminals. EM2 is the endogenous ligand of MOR. In the present study, retrograde(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide. Despite several efforts to elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in this cancer, they are still not fully understood. METHODS To acquire further insights into the molecular mechanisms of HCC, and to identify biomarkers for early diagnosis of HCC, we downloaded(More)
Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) presents as a wide variety of sensorimotor symptoms and affects approximately 50% of diabetic patients. Changes in the neural circuits may occur in the early stages in diabetes and are implicated in the development of DPN. Therefore, we aimed to detect changes in the expression of isolectin B4 (IB4, the marker for(More)
—In 2011, Lee et al. improved Hsiang et al.'s scheme and proposed a security dynamic ID-based remote user authentication scheme for multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and can resist several kinds of known attacks. However, we observe that Lee et al.'s scheme is still vulnerable to stolen smart card(More)
PURPOSE Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease in which elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) leads to progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and blindness. Calcium dyshomeostasis has been suggested to play a role in the pathologic events that lead to RGC loss, though the details of these events are not well understood. Calcium-induced activation(More)
Noise overexposure may induce permanent noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The cochlear nucleus complex (CNC) is the entry point for sensory information in the central auditory system. Impairments in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated synaptic transmission in the CNC have been implicated in the pathogenesis of auditory disorders. However, the role of(More)
PURPOSE We previously reported that calcineurin, a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase, is activated and proposed that it participates in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis in two rodent ocular hypertension models. In this study, we tested whether calcineurin activation by itself, even in the absence of ocular hypertension, is(More)