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The urinary bladder is innervated by parasympathetic preganglionic neurons (PPNs) that express μ-opioid receptors (MOR) in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus (SPN) at lumbosacral segments L6-S1. The SPN also contains endomorphin 2 (EM2)-immunoreactive (IR) fibers and terminals. EM2 is the endogenous ligand of MOR. In the present study, retrograde(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide. Despite several efforts to elucidate molecular mechanisms involved in this cancer, they are still not fully understood. METHODS To acquire further insights into the molecular mechanisms of HCC, and to identify biomarkers for early diagnosis of HCC, we downloaded(More)
—In 2011, Lee et al. improved Hsiang et al.'s scheme and proposed a security dynamic ID-based remote user authentication scheme for multi-server environment using smart cards. They claimed that their protocol is efficient and can resist several kinds of known attacks. However, we observe that Lee et al.'s scheme is still vulnerable to stolen smart card(More)
Glaucoma is a disease in which retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) die leading ultimately to blindness. Over the past decade and a half, information has begun to emerge regarding specific molecular responses of the retina to conditions of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). It is now clear that the state of the RGC in glaucoma depends on a balance of(More)
Reactive gliosis is a complex process that involves changes in gene expression and morphological remodeling. The mouse optic nerve, where astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes interact with retinal ganglion cell axons and each other, is a particularly suitable model for studying the molecular mechanisms of reactive gliosis. We triggered gliosis at the(More)
UNLABELLED The rostroventromedial medulla (RVM) is an important area of the endogenous pain-regulating system, in which 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are 2 main transmitters involved in pain modulation. However, whether 5-HT and GABA are colocalized is poorly understood. By using glutamate decarboxylase 67-green fluorescence(More)
Noise overexposure may induce permanent noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The cochlear nucleus complex (CNC) is the entry point for sensory information in the central auditory system. Impairments in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated synaptic transmission in the CNC have been implicated in the pathogenesis of auditory disorders. However, the role of(More)
Activity-dependent refinement of synaptic connections occurs throughout the developing nervous system, including the visual system. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) overproduce synapses then refine them in an activity-dependent manner that segregates RGC connections into multicellular patterns, such as eye-specific regions and retinotopic maps. Ferrets(More)
Reactive astrocytes are typically studied in models that cause irreversible mechanical damage to axons, neuronal cell bodies, and glia. Here, we evaluated the response of astrocytes in the optic nerve head to a subtle injury induced by a brief, mild elevation of the intraocular pressure. Astrocytes demonstrated reactive remodeling that peaked at three days,(More)
AIMS The present study aims to test whether astrocytes contribute to glucocorticoid-mediated diabetic mechanical allodynia. METHODS Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were used in our study. The intrathecal operation was performed 21 days after the onset of diabetes. Diabetic mechanical allodynia was present 28 d after the onset of diabetes, and(More)