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Kinetic analysis of vitamin C uptake demonstrated that different specialized cells take up ascorbic acid through sodium-vitamin C cotransporters. Recently, two different isoforms of sodium-vitamin C cotransporters (SVCT1/SLC23A1 and SVCT2/SLC23A2) have been cloned. SVCT2 was detected mainly in choroidal plexus cells and neurons; however, there is no(More)
Glycine receptors (GlyRs), together with GABA(A) and nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors, form part of the ligand-activated ion channel superfamily and regulate the excitability of the mammalian brain stem and spinal cord. Here we report that the ability of the neurotransmitter glycine to gate recombinant and native ionotropic GlyRs is modulated by the(More)
Heterotrimeric G-proteins transduce signals from heptahelical transmembrane receptors to different effector systems, regulating diverse complex intracellular pathways and functions. In brain, facilitation of depolarization-induced neurotransmitter release for synaptic transmission is mediated by Gsalpha and Gqalpha. To identify effectors for(More)
During early embryonic development, many inductive interactions between tissues depend on signal transduction processes. We began to test the possibility that G-proteins participate in the signal transduction pathways that mediate neural induction. The expression during Xenopus development of three G alpha subunits, G alpha 0, G alpha i-1 and G alpha s-1,(More)
Potassium channels in neurons are linked by guanine nucleotide binding (G) proteins to numerous neurotransmitter receptors. The ability of Go, the predominant G protein in the brain, to stimulate potassium channels was tested in cell-free membrane patches of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Four distinct types of potassium channels, which were otherwise(More)
G-protein alpha subunits consist of two domains: a Ras-like domain also called GTPase domain (GTPaseD), structurally homologous to monomeric G-proteins, and a more divergent domain, unique to heterotrimeric G-proteins, called helical domain (HD). G-protein activation, requires the exchange of bound GDP for GTP, and since the guanine nucleotide is buried in(More)
We screened a HIT (hamster insulin-secreting tumor) cell cDNA library constructed in lambda gt11 with a Go-specific oligonucleotide probe and isolated six recombinant phages. The inserts of these phages encoded two forms of alpha o, called here alpha o1 and alpha o2. The deduced amino acid sequence of alpha o1 is identical in all of its 354 amino acids to(More)
Bone-specific transcription of the osteocalcin (OC) gene is regulated principally by the Runx2 transcription factor and is further stimulated in response to 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 via its specific receptor (VDR). The rat OC gene promoter contains three recognition sites for Runx2 (sites A, B, and C). Mutation of sites A and B, which flank the(More)
Ric-8 is a highly conserved cytosolic protein (MW 63 KDa) initially identified in C. elegans as an essential factor in neurotransmitter release and asymmetric cell division. Two different isoforms have been described in mammals, Ric-8A and Ric-8B; each possess guanine nucleotide exchange activity (GEF) on heterotrimeric G-proteins, but with different Galpha(More)
The expression of mRNAs coding for different Xenopus laevis oocyte G alpha subunits was analyzed by the PCR technique. Using the nucleotide sequences of five previously cloned cDNAs for oocyte G alpha subunits [FEBS Lett. 244, 188-192, 1989; FEBS Lett. 268, 27-31, 1990] and the highly sensitive reverse PCR reaction we found that G alpha o, G alpha i-1, G(More)