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This work expands the model proposed by Krimtholz, Leedom, and Matthaei (KLM) model to account for the nonlinear effects occurring in acoustic devices due to the nonlinear stiffened elasticity. We show that a nonlinear distributed capacitance in the acoustic transmission line of the KLM model can account for the distributed nature of the nonlinear effects.(More)
We present a broadband on-wafer calibration from 45 MHz to 40 GHz for variable temperature measurements, which requires three standards: a thru, reflect, and series resistor. At room temperature, the maximum error of this technique, compared to a benchmark nine-standard multiline thru-reflect-line (TRL) method, is comparable to the repeatability of the(More)
This paper describes a procedure to obtain analytical expressions for the spurious signals generated in nonlinear transmission lines with impedance mismatch when they are subject to small-signals. Using these expressions one can rapidly extract the nonlinear parameters describing the nonlinear effects due to the conductor, <i>L</i>(<i>i</i>) and(More)
This paper gives closed-form equations for the intermodulation and third harmonic signals generated in a nonlinear transmission line with distributed quadratic nonlinearities in the conductor and dielectric. Although the formulation developed is general, it is intended to be used in planar devices combining high-temperature superconductor (HTS) and oxide(More)
This paper evaluates the RF tuning and the microwave nonlinear response of SrTiO<sub>3</sub> thin films by measuring the third harmonics and third-order intermodulation (IMD) products of several coplanar waveguide transmission lines fabricated directly on SrTiO<sub>3 </sub> thin-film samples. From these measurements, we obtained the distributed nonlinear(More)
The modified BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure was used to examine the temporal dynamics of trace elements in soils contaminated by an accidental spill from an opencast mine in south-west Spain. Soils were mainly contaminated with pyritic sludge and acidic wastewater, whereas some soils were affected only by acidic wastewater. The distributions(More)
This paper proposes a mechanism by which third-order intermodulation distortion, due to self-heating, is generated in transmission lines. This work shows how transmission lines made of several materials, whose properties are independent of the electric and magnetic fields, can generate important levels of intermodulation distortion. A circuit model(More)
We present a general procedure for calculating intermodulation distortion in coupled-resonator filters that allows one to predict the performance of a nonlinear filter as a function of the general nodal matrix defining the filter and the material parameters that cause the nonlinear behavior. It is valid for almost any type of nonlinear distributed effects,(More)