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We have synthesized inorganic micron-sized filaments, whose microstucture consists of silica-coated nanometer-sized carbonate crystals, arranged with strong orientational order. They exhibit noncrystallographic, curved, helical morphologies, reminiscent of biological forms. The filaments are similar to supposed cyanobacterial microfossils from the(More)
The eggshell of the hen is a highly ordered and mineralised structure, which is sequentially deposited within an acellular milieu – the uterine fluid secreted by the distal oviduct. Spherulitic crystal growth of calcite is initiated on organic aggregates on surface of the eggshell membranes, followed by competition between radial crystallites for space to(More)
The precipitation of barium or strontium carbonates in alkaline silica-rich environments leads to crystalline aggregates that have been named silica/carbonate biomorphs because their morphology resembles that of primitive organisms. These aggregates are self-assembled materials of purely inorganic origin, with an amorphous phase of silica intimately(More)
—Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the interactions between proteins and mineral surfaces, among them a combination of electrostatic, stereochemical interactions and molecular recognition between the protein and the crystal surface. To identify the mechanisms of interaction in the lysozyme– calcium carbonate model system, the effect of this(More)
Calcium sulfate minerals such as gypsum play important roles in natural and industrial processes, but their precipitation mechanisms remain largely unexplored. We used time-resolved sample quenching and high-resolution microscopy to demonstrate that gypsum forms via a three-stage process: (i) homogeneous precipitation of nanocrystalline hemihydrate(More)
The Naica Mine in northern Mexico is famous for its giant gypsum crystals, which may reach up to 11 m long and contain fluid inclusions that might have captured microorganisms during their formation. These crystals formed under particularly stable geochemical conditions in cavities filled by low salinity hydrothermal water at 54-58°C. We have explored the(More)
Streamflows in a Mediterranean mountain basin in the central Spanish Pyrenees were projected under various climate and land use change scenarios. Streamflow series projected for 2021-2050 were used to simulate the management of the Yesa reservoir, which is critical to the downstream supply of irrigation and domestic water. Streamflows were simulated using(More)
Two complementary approaches are used to enhance the usefulness of X-ray topographies obtained from protein crystals. First, the use of thin plate-like crystals in conjunction with a high intensity, collimated and small source size synchrotron beam produces a large beneficial effect on the level of detail and contrast of topographies for the quantification(More)
We provide a new tool to interpret the large scale structure of the Universe. As suggested in Paper II, energy density filaments could have been produced by subjacent magnetic flux tubes when the Universe was dominated by radiation. In more recent time epochs, small scale filaments have evolved in a complicated way, but large scale filaments have probably(More)