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A multiple case study was conducted in order to assess three leading theories of developmental dyslexia: (i) the phonological theory, (ii) the magnocellular (auditory and visual) theory and (iii) the cerebellar theory. Sixteen dyslexic and 16 control university students were administered a full battery of psychometric, phonological, auditory, visual and(More)
BACKGROUND Incidence studies of spinal cord injury (SCI) are important for health-care planning and epidemiological research. This review gives a quantitative update on SCI epidemiology worldwide through a statistical evaluation of incidence rates. METHODS A systematic review was conducted. For each study, the crude rate ratio was calculated and, when(More)
The size of the response to a startling auditory stimulus (SAS) may reflect the excitability of the reticulospinal tract. In this study, we examined whether there was any excitability change in the reticulospinal tract during preparation for execution of two types of choice reaction time task: a forced choice reaction time task (fCRT) and a Go/no-Go task(More)
The aim of this study was to verify the contribution of haptic and auditory cues in the quick discrimination of an object mass. Ten subjects had to brake with the right hand the movement of a cup due to the falling impact of an object that could be of two different masses. They were asked to perform a quick left hand movement if the object was of the(More)
The control of eye movements depends in part on subcortical motor centres. Gaze is often directed towards salient visual stimuli of our environment with no conscious voluntary commands. To further understand to what extent preprogrammed eye movements can be triggered subcortically, we carried out a study in normal volunteers to examine the effects of a(More)
A startling auditory stimulus delivered during preparation for execution of a ballistic movement in a simple reaction time task experiment induces two effects: a startle response and a reaction time shortening (the StartReact effect). We investigated whether prepulse inhibition of the startle response is effective in suppressing either one of these effects(More)
Movement execution is speeded up when a startle auditory stimulus is applied with an imperative signal in a simple reaction time task experiment, a phenomenon described as StartReact. The effect has been recently observed in a step adjustment task requiring fast selection of specific movements in a choice reaction time task. Therefore, we hypothesized that(More)
Simple ballistic movements are executed faster in reaction time task paradigms when the imperative signal (IS) is accompanied by a startling auditory stimulus (SAS). We examined whether this effect also occurs in complex movements such as the sit-to-stand manoeuvre (STS). Nine healthy volunteers performed STS to visual IS, either presented alone (control(More)
In preparation for performing task specific ballistic movements, subjects may choose among different possibilities for setting up their motor apparatus, ranging from quiet resting to different types of muscle activation. In the study presented here, we investigated whether differences in the motor set modify either the reaction time or the kinematic(More)