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Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system in vertebrates. Excitotoxicity, caused by over-stimulation of the glutamate receptors, is a major cause of neuron death in several brain diseases, including epilepsy. We describe here how behavioural seizures can be triggered in adult zebrafish by the administration of kainate(More)
Expression of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha) and estrogen receptor beta (ER-beta) in the testis of the marbled newt (Triturus marmoratus marmoratus) was investigated, with special attention to changes during the annual testicular cycle, using light microscopy immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Primordial germ cells,(More)
BACKGROUND So far there have been no reports on the expression pattern of DAX-1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1) in human breast cells and its relationship to the estrogen receptors, ER-alpha and ER-beta, and the androgen receptor (AR). METHODS In this study we evaluated, by immunohistochemistry(More)
Estrogens and androgens have a crucial role in the proliferation and progression of breast cancer [1]. Estrogens are potent mitogens that mediate its proliferative action through the induction of cyclin D1, the major regulator of entry into the G1 stage of the cell cycle, and promote the secretion of positive or negative paracrine growth signals by breast(More)
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is rapidly gaining ground as a disease model. However, until now, the use of this species with human pathogens has been restricted to just three bacteria; no studies involving viruses that infect humans are recorded. In this study, the zebrafish was used as a model of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection of the nervous(More)
The activating protein-1 transcription factor, in particular the Jun proteins play critical roles in the regulation of cell proliferation and tumor progression. To study the potential clinical relevance of interfering with JunB expression, we generated retroviruses expressing short hairpin RNA. Reduction of JunB levels causes increased proliferation and(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) causes disease in humans and animals. Infection usually occurs via the neural route and possibly occurs via the hematogenous route. The latter, however, is the main route by which immunosuppressed individuals and neonates are infected. Gender-dependent differences in the incidence and severity of some viral infections(More)
The frequency and functionality of peripheral blood invariant (iNKT) cells and their subsets, as well as other regulatory T-cell subsets, were evaluated in patients with type 1A diabetes mellitus (DM1), Hashimoto's disease, and Graves' disease. In addition to healthy individuals (HC), patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) were included as controls(More)
Docosahexaeonic acid (DHA) is the final compound in the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) synthetic pathway and the most abundant PUFA found in the brain. DHA plays an essential role in the development of the brain, and the intakes in pregnancy and early life affect growth and cognitive performance later in childhood. Recently, it has been proposed(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus that causes severe disease and death in newborn humans but, to date, it remains unclear how neonatal infection occurs. We show here that the vertical transmission of HSV-1 in mice is mainly hematogenous and involves the colonization of the neonate central nervous system (CNS). HSV-1 DNA was mainly(More)