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More than 60% of human infectious diseases are caused by pathogens shared with wild or domestic animals. Zoonotic disease organisms include those that are endemic in human populations or enzootic in animal populations with frequent cross-species transmission to people. Some of these diseases have only emerged recently. Together, these organisms are(More)
During the second half of 2005, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus spread rapidly from central Asia to eastern Europe. The relative roles of wild migratory birds and the poultry trade are still unclear, given that little is yet known about the range of virus hosts, precise movements of migratory birds, or routes of illegal poultry trade. We(More)
Retrospectively it is believed that the fi rst outbreak occurred on 12 June 2008 in the rural village of Ain Chkef, Moulay Yacoub, not far from Fès. PPR was confi rmed by laboratory tests on 18 July and reported to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) on 23 July, 2008. In the aftermath of its initial detection, the disease has spread quickly such(More)
The potential existence of a wild bird reservoir for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has been recently questioned by the spread and the persisting circulation of H5N1 HPAI viruses, responsible for concurrent outbreaks in migratory and domestic birds over Asia, Europe, and Africa. During a large-scale surveillance programme over Eastern Europe, the(More)
Binding of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) to cells requires an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence in the capsid protein VP1. We have genetically engineered an FMDV in which these three amino acids have been deleted, producing a virus particle which is unable to bind to cells. Cattle vaccinated with these receptor binding site-deleted virions(More)
The number of pathogens known to infect humans is ever increasing. Whether such increase reflects improved surveillance and detection or actual emergence of novel pathogens is unclear. Nonetheless, infectious diseases are the second leading cause of human mortality and disability-adjusted life years lost worldwide [1,2]. On average, three to four new(More)
Vaccination of domestic poultry against avian influenza (AI) has been used on a large-scale in South East Asia since 2003 and in Egypt since 2006 to fight H5N1 highly-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemics. The decision to use mass vaccination against HPAI in Egypt was taken as an emergency measure based on positive impact of such control measures in(More)
Recent disease epidemics and their spread around the world have illustrated the weaknesses of disease surveillance and early warning systems (EWS), both at national and international levels. These diseases continuously threaten the livestock sector on a worldwide basis, some with major public health impact. EWS and accurate forecasting of new outbreaks of(More)
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most contagious transboundary animal disease (TAD) affecting cloven hoofed animals. Significant economic losses are produced by its high morbidity and the export trade restrictions imposed on affected countries. There are seven recognised serotypes of FMD (O, A, C, Asia , SAT , SAT 2 and SAT 3), which differ in(More)