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Extracellular (EC) concentrations of amino acids were determined in the rat dentate gyrus by means of non-linear regression analysis of 'in vivo' brain dialysis data, considering a simple model of diffusion through a dialysis membrane. The apparent diffusion constants (K) of several amino acids were also calculated in the 'in vivo' situation. While putative(More)
Schizophrenia is a complex disorder that interferes with the function of several brain systems required for cognition and normal social behaviour. Although the most notable clinical aspects of the disease only become apparent during late adolescence or early adulthood, many lines of evidence suggest that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a(More)
Although both protein and mRNAs for kainate receptor subunits are abundant in several brain regions, the responsiveness of AMPA receptors to kainate has made it difficult to demonstrate the presence of functional kainate-type receptors in native cells. Recently, however, we have shown that many hippocampal neurons in culture express glutamate receptors of(More)
The mechanism through which kainate receptors downregulate the release of GABA in the hippocampus is not known. We have found that the action of kainate on the hippocampal inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) is mediated by a metabotropic process that is sensitive to Pertussis toxin (PTx) and independent of ion channel current. The downregulation of GABA(More)
Using microcultured neurons and hippocampal slices, we found that under conditions that completely block AMPA receptors, kainate induces a reduction in the effectiveness of GABAergic synaptic inhibition. Evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were decreased by kainate by up to 90%, showing a bell-shaped dose-response curve similar to that of native(More)
Glutamate receptors constitute a complex signalling system at most of the excitatory synapses in the brain. Of the known ionotropic glutamate receptors, kainate receptors are ubiquitous in the central nervous system, and a considerable amount of data indicates that this class of receptors is present at both sides of the synapse. Pre- and postsynaptic(More)
Excitatory amino acids exert a depolarizing action on central nervous system cells through an increase in cationic conductances. Non-NMDA receptors have been considered to be selectively permeable to Na+ and K+, while Ca2+ influx has been thought to occur through the NMDA receptor subtype. Recently, however, the expression of cloned non-NMDA receptor(More)
Although some physiological functions of kainate receptors (KARs) still remain unclear, recent advances have highlighted a role in synaptic physiology. In hippocampal slices, kainate depresses GABA-mediated synaptic inhibition and increases the firing rate of interneurons. However, the sensitivity to agonists of these responses differs, suggesting that the(More)
A decade ago, our understanding of the molecular properties of kainate receptors and their involvement in synaptic physiology was essentially null. A plethora of recent studies has altered this situation profoundly such that kainate receptors are now regarded as key players in the modulation of transmitter release, as important mediators of the postsynaptic(More)