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Human embryonic stem (hES) cells are defined by their extensive self-renewal capacity and their potential to differentiate into any cell type of the human body. The challenge in using hES cells for developmental biology and regenerative medicine has been to direct the wide differentiation potential toward the derivation of a specific cell fate. Within the(More)
Existing protocols for the neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells require extended in vitro culture, yield variable differentiation results or are limited to the generation of selected neural subtypes. Here we provide a set of coculture conditions that allows rapid and efficient derivation of most central nervous system phenotypes. The(More)
The polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) appeared during the evolution of vertebrates as a new mechanism for regulation of cell interactions. This large and abundant glycoprotein can exert steric effects at the cell surface that lead to the attenuation of cell-cell bonds mediated not only by NCAM but also a variety of other(More)
Calcium-permeable neurotransmitter receptors are concentrated into structurally and biochemically isolated cellular compartments to localize calcium-mediated events during neurotransmission. The cytoplasmic membrane contains lipid microdomains called lipid rafts, which can gather into microscopically visible clusters, and thus the association of a(More)
Schwann cell myelin contains highly compacted layers of membrane as well as noncompacted regions with a visible cytoplasm. One of these cytoplasmic compartments is the Schmidt-Lanterman incisure, which spirals through the compacted layers and is believed to help sustain the growth and function of compact myelin. Incisures contain adherens junctions (AJs),(More)
1. The relationship between cycloheximide (CHX) and RNA synthesis inhibitors on trophic-deprived neuronal survival was studied with the use of primary cultures of stage (St) 34 chick ciliary ganglion (CG) neurons, to analyze the biological process of neuronal death caused by trophic factor withdrawal. Tissue culture conditions were refined by characterizing(More)
One of the recent advances in the molecular definition of a synapse has been the identification of cadherins as major structural components. The presence of classic (N- and E-) cadherins in the synaptic complex is not surprising considering the ultrastructural similarities between interneuronal synapses and the adhesive junctions formed between epithelial(More)
The pharmacological specificity of Ca2+ channel-secretion coupling in acetylcholine (ACh) and somatostatin (SOM) release was studied in the chick eye choroid neuromuscular junctions and in dissociated ciliary ganglion (CG) neurons. ACh secretion changes in development from stage (St) 40, when release is dihydropyridine (DHP) and partially omega-conotoxin(More)
Maternal viral infection during pregnancy is associated with an increase in the incidence of psychiatric disorders with presumed neurodevelopmental origin, including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. The enhanced risk for developing mental illness appears to be caused by deleterious effects of innate immune response-associated factors on the(More)
Neural cadherin (N-cadherin) is an adhesion receptor that is localized in abundance at neuronto- neuron synapses. N-cadherin contains an extracellular domain that binds to other cadherins on juxtaposed cell membranes, a single-pass transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic tail that interacts with various proteins, including catenins, kinases, phosphatases,(More)