Juan L Arciniega

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The potency test for the anthrax vaccine currently licensed for human use in the United States (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) involves the protection of actively immunized guinea pigs from a lethal challenge with a virulent strain of Bacillus anthracis. Lethal challenge tests entail the use of specialized containment facilities for the safe and secure handling(More)
Current lot release testing of conventional vaccines emphasizes quality control of the final product and is characterized by its extensive use of laboratory animals. This report, which is based on the outcome of an ECVAM (European Centre for Validation of Alternative Methods, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, European Commission Joint Research(More)
We report that a toxin neutralization assay (TNA) can detect a decrease in the immunogenicity of anthrax vaccines as a consequence of brief exposure to elevated temperature. This attribute of TNA may help in adopting immunogenicity as a replacement of the current potency test, which involves protection from lethal challenge.
NICEATM and ICCVAM convened an international workshop to review the state of the science of human and veterinary vaccine potency and safety testing methods and to identify opportunities to advance new and improved methods that can further reduce, refine, and replace animal use. Topics were addressed in detail by speakers and workshop participants and are(More)
The human serologic response to several envelope-associated proteins and adenylate cyclase toxin of Bordetella pertussis was examined using immunoblot techniques. Antigens recognized by sera from individuals with culture-confirmed pertussis and by sera from infants immunized with three doses of conventional whole-cell pertussis vaccine included a 63,000-Da(More)
Complexities of lethal challenge models have prompted the investigation of immunogenicity assays as potency tests of anthrax vaccines. An ELISA and a lethal toxin neutralization assay (TNA) were used to measure antibody response to Protective Antigen (PA) in mice immunized once with either a commercial or a recombinant PA (rPA) vaccine formulated in-house.(More)
Long-term stability is a desired characteristic of vaccines, especially anthrax vaccines, which must be stockpiled for large-scale use in an emergency situation; however, spontaneous deamidation of purified vaccine antigens has the potential to adversely affect vaccine immunogenicity over time. In order to explore whether spontaneous deamidation of(More)
The only US-licensed anthrax vaccine for human use, as well as several experimental vaccines containing solely purified recombinant protective antigen (rPA), are formulated using aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) as an adjuvant. It has been suggested that effective adjuvanticity of aluminum salts for protein antigens depends, at least partially, on the degree of(More)
Regulatory authorities require safety and potency testing prior to the release of each production lot of acellular pertussis (aP)-containing vaccines. Currently, the murine histamine sensitization test (HIST) is used to evaluate the presence of residual pertussis toxin in aP containing vaccines. However, the testing requires the use of a significant number(More)
Anthrax vaccines containing recombinant PA (rPA) as the only antigen face a stability issue: rPA forms aggregates in solution after exposure to temperatures ⩾40°C, thus losing its ability to form lethal toxin (LeTx) with Lethal Factor. To study rPA aggregation's impact on immune response, we subjected rPA to several time and temperature combinations. rPA(More)