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Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV = maedi-visna in sheep and caprine arthritis encephalitis in goats) are distributed throughout most countries of the world, particularly Europe. Laboratories from 16 European countries established collaborations within the framework of a COST (CO-operation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research) action sponsored(More)
Reduced expression of synaptophysin p38, synaptic-associated protein of molecular weight 25,000 (SNAP-25), syntaxin-1, synapsin-1, and alpha- and beta-synuclein, matching the distribution of spongiform degeneration, was found in the neurological phase of scrapie-infected mice. In addition, synaptophysin and SNAP-25 were accumulated in isolated neurons,(More)
This work represents a comprehensive pathological description of the retina and visual pathways in naturally affected Scrapie sheep. Twenty naturally affected Scrapie sheep and 6 matched controls were used. Eyes, optic nerves and brain from each animal were fixed and histologically processed using hematoxylin-eosin, followed by immunohistochemical staining(More)
Astroglial proliferation associated with pathological prion protein (PrPsc) deposition is widely described in Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs). However, little is known of the actual role played by glia in their pathogenesis. The aim of the study has been to determine whether PrPsc is located exclusively in neurons or in both neurons and(More)
Scrapie is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease of sheep and goats. It is also the earliest known member in the family of diseases classified as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) or prion diseases, which includes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and chronic wasting disease in cervids. The recent(More)
Scrapie is a prion disease in small ruminants that manifests itself with neurological clinical signs amongst which are ataxia and tremors. These signs can be explained partially by an imbalance in central inhibitory innervation. The study of the brain's inhibitory neuronal GABAergic populations and of their extracellular matrix has been used to define, in(More)
Lentivirus infections in small ruminants represent an economic problem affecting several European countries with important sheep-breeding industries. Programs for control and eradication of these infections are being initiated and require reliable screening assays. This communication describes the construction and evaluation of a new serological screening(More)
Variability of pathological phenotypes within classical sheep scrapie cases has been reported for some time, but in many instances it has been attributed to differences in the PRNP genotype of the host. To address this issue we have examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting (WB) for the disease-associated form of the prion protein(More)
One of the "gold standard" techniques for postmortem confirmation of scrapie diagnosis in sheep and goats is immunohistochemical examination of brain tissue. Active surveillance for scrapie is mainly performed by rapid diagnostic tests on the basis of postmortem immunochemical detection of prion protein (PrP) in the obex tissue. The aim of this study was to(More)
The pathogenesis of natural scrapie and other prion diseases remains unclear. Examining transcriptome variations in infected versus control animals may highlight new genes potentially involved in some of the molecular mechanisms of prion-induced pathology. The aim of this work was to identify disease-associated alterations in the gene expression profiles of(More)