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The inflammatory response is modulated through interactions among the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. Intercommunication between immune cells and the autonomic nervous system is a growing area of interest. Spatial and temporal information about inflammatory processes is relayed to the central nervous system (CNS) where neuroimmune modulation serves(More)
Inflammation is the body's response to insults, which include infection, trauma, and hypersensitivity. The inflammatory response is complex and involves a variety of mechanisms to defend against pathogens and repair tissue. In the lung, inflammation is usually caused by pathogens or by exposure to toxins, pollutants, irritants, and allergens. During(More)
The present studies evaluate whether the vagus nerves link the lungs' immune and neural systems by transmitting information through pulmonary nociceptors. Single unit activities from pulmonary nociceptors [C fiber receptors (CFRs) and high threshold Adelta fiber receptors (HTARs)] were recorded from the cervical vagus nerve in anesthetized, open-chest, and(More)
BACKGROUND Pulmonary vasoconstriction in response to hypoxia is unusual inasmuch as local exposure of nonpulmonary vasculature to hypoxia results in vasodilation. It has been suggested that pulmonary artery smooth-muscle cells may relax in response to intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and that the production of ROS decreases under(More)
Mouse model research is proliferating because of its readiness for genetic manipulation. Little is known about pulmonary vagal afferents in mice, however. The purpose of this study was to determine whether their pulmonary afferents are similar to those in large animals. Single-unit activity was recorded in the cervical vagus nerve of anesthetized,(More)
BACKGROUND Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been linked to cardiovascular complications such as stroke and myocardial infarction. Previous studies demonstrate that OSA patients show elevated fibrinogen levels and increased platelet aggregation that are reversed with 1 night of nasal continuous positive airway pressure treatment (NCPAP). Questioning overall(More)
BACKGROUND Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity scores can identify patients at low risk for mortality who may be suitable for ambulatory care. Here, we follow the clinical course of hospitalized patients with CAP due to 2009 H1N1 influenza. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the role of CAP severity scores as predictors of mortality. METHODS This was a(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the value of the percutaneous dilatational technique in elective cricothyroidotomy. DESIGN Forty-four consecutive patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. SETTING The general 14-bed intensive care unit of a university hospital. INTERVENTIONS Fourty-four percutaneous dilatational cricothyroidotomies using a(More)
There are anecdotal reports of pulmonary edema after a night of recurrent obstructive apneas (OAs) in humans, but no data on lung water, gas exchange, filling pressure, or cardiac output (Q) exist in these patients. By clamping the endotracheal tube of eight intubated, anesthesized dogs, we created repetitive OAs of 45-s duration at 30-s intervals, for 8 h.(More)
Aortic valve rupture, secondary to aortic valve endocarditis, was diagnosed echocardiographically and closely followed preoperatively. The ruptured left coronary cusp of the aortic valve was seen as dense irregular echoes, located anteriorly during ventricular diastole, and protruding into the left ventricular outflow tract in an otherwise normally(More)