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Scenarios of changes in biodiversity for the year 2100 can now be developed based on scenarios of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate, vegetation, and land use and the known sensitivity of biodiversity to these changes. This study identified a ranking of the importance of drivers of change, a ranking of the biomes with respect to expected(More)
Fitzroya cupressoides (alerce, Cupressaceae) is a large and exceptionally long-lived conifer, endemic to a restricted area of southern Chile and neighbouring areas of Argentina. As a result of its high economic value, the species has been severely exploited for timber, and remnant populations are fragmented and often highly disturbed. The species is thought(More)
Visitation rates and mean numbers of visits per flower per day are determined at three altitudinal levels (2 200–3 600 m) in the high Andes of central Chile from quantified observations of flowers visitors to a total of 134 species of plants, studied over three flowering seasons. Significant altitudinal decreases in the mean no. visits/flower/minute and per(More)
The study of succession has been hampered by the lack of a general theory. This is illustrated by confusion over basic concepts and inadequacy of certain models. This review clarifies the basic ideas of pathway, mechanism, and model in succession. Second, in order to prevent inappropriate narrowness in successional studies, we analyze the mechanistic(More)
Questions of successional pattern and causality have been central concerns in vegetation ecology. In this paper we address the limits of the overextended models of Connell and Slatyer by discussing problems encountered in field tests. To help prevent such problems, we define the essential concepts needed to understand succession: pathway, cause, mechanism,(More)
Studies in unpolluted, old-growth forests in the coastal range of southern Chile (42°30′S) can provide a baseline for understanding how forest ecosystems are changing due to the acceleration of nitrogen (N) inputs that has taken place over the last century. Chilean temperate forests, in contrast to their northern hemisphere counterparts, exhibit extremely(More)
The Chilean fog-free Pacific coastal desert, one of the driest desertic regions of the world, is undergoing rapid rates of desertification as a result of intensive agriculture, overgrazing and mining. There is an urgent need to document the mycorrhizal status of Chilean plants, and the role of the symbiosis in rehabilitation and preservation of species(More)
Vast areas of southern Chile are now covered by second-growth forests because of fire and logging. To study successional patterns after moderate-intensity, anthropogenic fire disturbance, we assessed differences in soil properties and N fluxes across a chronosequence of seven successional stands (2–130 years old). We examined current predictions of(More)
Phenological studies in plant communities have generally focused on taxonomically heterogeneous species assemblages, and have only occasionally examined the evolutionary and ecological constraints on the phenological patterns of species within a single family or a genus. Here, we determine relative importance of phylogenetic versus other constraints on the(More)
Climate change and fragmentation are major threats to world forests. Understanding how functional traits related to drought tolerance change across small-scale, pronounced moisture gradients in fragmented forests is important to predict species' responses to these threats. In the case of Aextoxicon punctatum, a dominant canopy tree in fog-dependent rain(More)