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Spatial epidemiology is increasingly being used to assess health risks associated with environmental hazards. Risk patterns tend to have both a temporal and a spatial component; thus, spatial epidemiology must combine methods from epidemiology, statistics, and geographic information science. Recent statistical advances in spatial epidemiology include the(More)
The increasing availability of gene sequences of prokaryotic species in samples extracted from all kind of locations allows addressing the study of the influence of environmental patterns in prokaryotic biodiversity. We present a comprehensive study to address the potential existence of environmental preferences of prokaryotic taxa and the commonness of the(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the risk of congenital anomalies in relation to an index of geographic density of landfill sites across 5x5 km grid squares in England. METHODS 2 km zones were constructed in a geographical information system around 8804 landfill sites, including 607 that handled special (hazardous) wastes, and intersected with postcode(More)
The human gut is the natural habitat for a large and dynamic bacterial community that has a great relevance for health. Metagenomics is increasing our knowledge of gene content as well as of functional and genetic variability in this microbiome. However, little is known about the active bacteria and their function(s) in the gastrointestinal tract. We(More)
Recent advances in disease mapping have focused first on including the time dimension, thus giving rise to spatio-temporal analysis of the variation of disease risk and, secondly, on carrying out joint analysis of two diseases that share common environmental risk factors and are, therefore, related. Here, we try to combine both issues and present a joint(More)
The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with a largely unknown aetiology and a wide range of symptoms. Most cross-sectional studies carried out so far suggest subtle alterations in the structure of the intestinal microbiota that are barely reproduced, partly because of the high inter-subject variation in the community(More)
BACKGROUND The initiation of environmental public health tracking systems in the United States and the United Kingdom provided an opportunity to advance techniques and tools available for spatial epidemiological analysis integrating both health and environmental data. OBJECTIVE The Rapid Inquiry Facility (RIF) allows users to calculate adjusted and(More)
Gut microbiota is the most complex bacterial community in the human body and its study may give important clues to the etiology of different intestinal diseases. Most studies carried out so far have used fecal samples, assuming that these samples have a similar distribution to the communities present throughout the colon. The present study was designed to(More)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder in western countries. Previous studies on IBS, mostly based on faecal samples, suggest alterations in the intestinal microbiota. However, no consensus has been reached regarding the association between specific bacteria and IBS. We explore the alterations of intestinal(More)
BACKGROUND The use of Bayesian hierarchical spatial models has become widespread in disease mapping and ecologic studies of health-environment associations. In this type of study, the data are typically aggregated over an extensive time period, thus neglecting the time dimension. The output of purely spatial disease mapping studies is therefore the average(More)