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A mechanism for co-operative load transport was detected in the seed-harvesting ant Messor barbarus. Workers co-operated sequentially, transferring the load from one to another and thus forming what might be termed a transport chain. Although most of the colony's workers could have transported loads unaided, co-operation was prompted by the appearance of(More)
Larvae and pupae of lycaenid butteflies are often associated with ants: this is usually a mutualism in which ants guard the lycaenids from natural enemies, and the lycaenid larvae and pupae provide sugars and amino acids for the ants. A possible consequence of the interaction is spatially correlated ant and lycaenid distributions, but the phenomenon is(More)
The monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, is famous for its spectacular annual migration across North America, recent worldwide dispersal, and orange warning colouration. Despite decades of study and broad public interest, we know little about the genetic basis of these hallmark traits. Here we uncover the history of the monarch's evolutionary origin and(More)
Range expansions can result in founder effects, increasing genetic differentiation between expanding populations and reducing genetic diversity along the expansion front. However, few studies have addressed these effects in long-distance migratory species, for which high dispersal ability might counter the effects of genetic drift. Monarchs (Danaus(More)
A 900 km2 coastal area in southern Spain was searched for both Danaus plexippus and D. chrysippus and their foodplants. A set of 63 single or mixed patches of Asclepias curassavica and Gomphocarpus fruticosus was detected and visited regularly from June 2008 to December 2009. Danaus plexippus was on the wing throughout our study period, but it was never(More)
Le but de ce travail est d'étudier l'influence d'un facteur biotique (la végétation) et d'un facteur abiotique (l'exposition) sur la distribution des espèces de fourmis dans une zone de la Sierra Morena Centrale (Sud de l'Espagne). Pour cela, on a réalisé des échantillonnages stratifiés dans chaque unité de végétation, en soulane et en ombrée. L'analyse des(More)
We present observations and experimental evidence for a new type of parasitoid-host interaction. In the Lampides boeticus (Lepidoptera) - Cotesia specularis (Hymenoptera) system, larvae of the former species readily kill and consume the parasitoid cocoons they find. Potential effects at both the individual and population levels are briefly outlined.
We sampled a total of 101 butterflies, including 92 D. plexippus and nine butterflies from other Danaus species (Supplementary Table 1). The North America population of monarchs undergoes a yearly migration from the United States and southern Canada to central Mexico (east of the Rocky Mountains) and coastal California (west of the Rocky Mountains). Our(More)
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