Juan Carlos Tapia

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The cellular basis of age-related behavioral decline remains obscure but alterations in synapses are likely candidates. Accordingly, the beneficial effects on neural function of caloric restriction and exercise, which are among the most effective anti-aging treatments known, might also be mediated by synapses. As a starting point in testing these ideas, we(More)
Fifty-eight cadherin-related protocadherin (Pcdh) genes are tandemly arrayed in three clusters (alpha, beta, and gamma) on mouse chromosome 18. The large number of clustered Pcdh family members, their presence at synapses, and the known binding specificities of other cadherin superfamily members all suggest that these Pcdhs play roles in specifying synaptic(More)
Presynaptic acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis and release is thought to be sustained by a hemicholinium-3-sensitive choline transporter (CHT). We disrupted the murine CHT gene and examined CHT-/- and +/- animals for evidence of impaired cholinergic neurotransmission. Although morphologically normal at birth, CHT-/- mice become immobile, breathe irregularly,(More)
During injury to the nervous system, innate immune cells mediate phagocytosis of debris, cytokine production, and axon regeneration. In the neuro-degenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), innate immune cells in the CNS are activated. However, the role of innate immunity in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) has not been well defined. In(More)
We describe automated technologies to probe the structure of neural tissue at nanometer resolution and use them to generate a saturated reconstruction of a sub-volume of mouse neocortex in which all cellular objects (axons, dendrites, and glia) and many sub-cellular components (synapses, synaptic vesicles, spines, spine apparati, postsynaptic densities, and(More)
Individual mammalian neurons stochastically express distinct repertoires of α, β, and γ protocadherin (Pcdh) proteins, which function in neural circuit assembly. We report that all three subfamilies of clustered Pcdhs can engage in specific homophilic interactions, that cell surface delivery of Pcdhα isoforms requires cis interactions with other Pcdhs, and(More)
The mammalian Protocadherin (Pcdh) alpha, beta, and gamma gene clusters encode a large family of cadherin-like transmembrane proteins that are differentially expressed in individual neurons. The 22 isoforms of the Pcdhg gene cluster are diversified into A-, B-, and C-types, and the C-type isoforms differ from all other clustered Pcdhs in sequence and(More)
VIDEO ABSTRACT Using light and serial electron microscopy, we show profound refinements in motor axonal branching and synaptic connectivity before and after birth. Embryonic axons become maximally connected just before birth when they innervate ∼10-fold more muscle fibers than in maturity. In some developing muscles, axons innervate almost every muscle(More)
Recent studies have shown that machine learning can improve the accuracy of detecting object boundaries in images. In the standard approach, a boundary detector is trained by minimizing its pixel-level disagreement with human boundary tracings. This naive metric is problematic because it is overly sensitive to boundary locations. This problem is solved by(More)
Glycine receptors (GlyRs), together with GABA(A) and nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors, form part of the ligand-activated ion channel superfamily and regulate the excitability of the mammalian brain stem and spinal cord. Here we report that the ability of the neurotransmitter glycine to gate recombinant and native ionotropic GlyRs is modulated by the(More)