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Information processing in the visual cortex depends on complex and context sensitive patterns of interactions between neuronal groups in many different cortical areas. Methods used to date for disentangling this functional connectivity presuppose either linearity or instantaneous interactions, assumptions that are not necessarily valid. In this paper a(More)
Here we present a detailed biophysical model of how brain electrical and vascular dynamics are generated within a basic cortical unit. The model was obtained from coupling a canonical neuronal mass and an expandable vasculature. In this proposal, we address several aspects related to electroencephalographic and functional magnetic resonance imaging data(More)
In the companion article a local electrovascular coupling (LEVC) model was proposed to explain the continuous dynamics of electrical and vascular states within a cortical unit. These states produce certain mesoscopic reflections whose discrete time series can be reconstructed from electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging(More)
HYPOTHESIS The type and frequency of complications after open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GBP) have changed with the development of laparoscopic technique. BACKGROUND The number of laparoscopic GBP cases performed in the United States has increased dramatically during the past several years. We compared the type and frequency of complications after(More)
High resolution spectral methods are explored as an alternative to broad band spectral parameters (BBSP) in quantitative EEG analysis. In a previous paper (Valdes et al. 1990b) regression equations ("Developmental surfaces") were introduced to characterize the age-frequency distribution of the mean and standard deviation of the log spectral EEG power in a(More)
Giardia, a flagellated protozoan that infects the upper small intestine of its vertebrate host, is the most common parasitic protist responsible for diarrhea worldwide. Molecules released by the parasite, particularly excretory and secretory antigens, seemed to be associated with pathogenesis as well as with the expression of Giardia virulence. In the(More)
PURPOSE Annular pancreas is a recognized cause of duodenal obstruction in children. The authors sought to characterize the clinical, radiologic, and prognostic findings in this disorder through a 10-year review of all patients with annular pancreas. METHODS A retrospective review of all annular pancreas cases identified between 1993 and 2002 at 2 tertiary(More)
We examined 364 school children for intestinal parasites in a sub-urban zone of Caracas, Venezuela. Giardia intestinalis was the most prevalent parasite in stool samples from 34 children. Levels of IgA and IgG antibodies to G. intestinalis were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot before and after treatment with secnidazole. All(More)
BACKGROUND The recently described Type VI Secretion System (T6SS) represents a new paradigm of protein secretion in bacteria. A number of bioinformatic studies have been conducted to identify T6SS gene clusters in the available bacterial genome sequences. According to these studies, Salmonella harbors a unique T6SS encoded in the Salmonella Pathogenicity(More)
The mechanisms involved in the induction of the immune response in humans or experimental hosts infected with Giardia intestinalis are not well understood. The results of previous studies indicate that the parasite induces a mixed Th1/Th2 response and that, in experimentally infected mice, the parasite's excreted/secreted (E/S) proteins contain cysteine(More)