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The European Water Framework Directive provides a challenge in the development of new and accurate methodologies. It addresses assessment of Ecological Quality Status within European rivers, lakes, groundwaters, estuaries and coasts. Although this directive is simple and flexible in its concept, it is necessary to develop an approach based upon scientific(More)
The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes a framework for the protection and improvement of estuarine and coastal waters, trying to achieve 'good surface water status at the latest 15 years after the date of entry into force of this Directive'. One of the biological elements that should be analysed is the benthos and, as such, the WFD(More)
We selected 68 children who reported benefit from individually chosen sheets of coloured plastic placed upon the page when reading, and who used these regularly without prompting. These children viewed text illuminated by coloured light in an apparatus that allowed the separate manipulation of hue (colour) and saturation (depth of colour), at constant(More)
The European Water Framework Directive requires the development of new and accurate methodologies, addressing the assessment of the physico-chemical status of transitional and coastal waters; these are considered by the Directive as the supporting elements for the final evaluation of the Ecological Quality Status. This contribution develops new approaches(More)
A recent double-masked placebo-controlled trial has confirmed that some children experience a reduction in symptoms of eyestrain and headache when they read through individually prescribed coloured filters and has shown that this benefit cannot be solely attributed to a placebo effect. People who are helped by coloured filters in this way have been(More)
The European water framework directive (WFD; Directive 2000/60/EC) develops the concept of ecological quality status (EcoQ) for the assessment of the quality of water masses. The EcoQ is based upon the status of biological, hydromorphological and physicochemical quality elements, with biological elements being especially important; and supported by the(More)
The present study tested the ‘Enemy Release Hypothesis’ (ERH) which states that the success of an introduced species is related to the scarcity of natural enemies in the introduced range compared with the native range. Digeneans are dominant macroparasites of molluscs; therefore, the interaction between R. philippinarum and these parasites was ideal for(More)
A system for therapeutic precision tinting is described. Some individuals who are subject to perceptual distortion of text no longer perceive the distortion when the text has a particular colour. A simple colorimeter enables an observer to illuminate text with light of a particular chromaticity, varying first CIE 1976 hue angle (huv), then saturation (suv),(More)
The European Water Framework and Marine Strategy Directives relate to the assessment of ecological quality, within estuarine and coastal systems. This legislation requires quality to be defined in an integrative way, using several biological elements (phytoplankton, benthos, algae, phanerogams, and fishes), together with physico-chemical elements (including(More)
The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) includes several Biological Quality Elements in the assessment of the ecological status, with one of them being benthic macroinvertebrates. Some methodologies to assess benthic quality have been developed recently in Europe, with several of them being based upon the AMBI index (Borja et al., 2000), such as M-AMBI(More)