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The oxygen paradox tells us that oxygen is both necessary for aerobic life and toxic to all life forms. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) touch every biological and medical discipline, especially those involving proliferative status, supporting the idea that active oxygen may be increased in tumor cells. In fact, metabolism of oxygen and the resulting toxic(More)
BACKGROUND Glutaminase is expressed in most mammalian tissues and cancer cells, but the regulation of its expression is poorly understood. An essential step to accomplish this goal is the characterization of its species- and cell-specific isoenzyme pattern of expression. Our aim was to identify and characterize transcript variants of the mammalian(More)
The protein glutaminase has been traditionally considered as a mitochondrial enzyme, playing a key role in the energy and nitrogen metabolism of mammalian cells. However, new experimental evidence in the last few years has challenged this simplified view. The recent discovery of novel extramitochondrial localizations, the identification of potential protein(More)
A human brain cDNA clone coding for a novel PDZ-domain protein of 124 amino acids was previously isolated in our laboratory. The protein was termed glutaminase-interacting protein (GIP), because it interacts with the C-terminal region of the human L-type glutaminase (LGA). The pattern of expression and functions of GIP in brain are completely unknown, so(More)
The expression of glutaminase in glial cells has been a controversial issue and matter of debate for many years. Actually, glutaminase is essentially considered as a neuronal marker in brain. Astrocytes are endowed with efficient and high capacity transport systems to recapture synaptic glutamate which seems to be consistent with the absence of glutaminase(More)
Glutamine is an essential amino acid in cancer cells and is required for the growth of many other cell types. Glutaminase activity is positively correlated with malignancy in tumours and with growth rate in normal cells. In the present work, Ehrlich ascites tumour cells, and their derivative, 0.28AS-2 cells, expressing antisense glutaminase mRNA, were(More)
The synthesis of glutamate in brain must be exquisitely regulated because of its harmful potential giving rise to excitotoxic damage. In this sense, a stringent control based on multiple regulatory mechanisms should be expected to be exhibited by the biosynthetic enzymes responsible of glutamate generation, to assure that glutamate is only synthesized at(More)
The synthesis of neurotransmitter glutamate in brain is mainly carried out by glutaminase enzymes. This synthesis must be exquisitely regulated because of its harmful potential giving rise to excitotoxic damage. It is noteworthy that two glutaminase isozymes coded by different genes are expressed in the brain of mammals. The need for two genes and two(More)
Mitochondrial glutaminase (GA) plays an essential role in cancer cell metabolism, contributing to biosynthesis, bioenergetics, and redox balance. Humans contain several GA isozymes encoded by the GLS and GLS2 genes, but the specific roles of each in cancer metabolism are still unclear. In this study, glioma SFxL and LN229 cells with silenced isoenzyme(More)
Abscisic acid (ABA) controls plant development and regulates plant responses to environmental stresses. A role for ABA in sugar regulation of plant development has also been well documented although the molecular mechanisms connecting the hormone with sugar signal transduction pathways are not well understood. In this work it is shown that Arabidopsis(More)