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BACKGROUND There is a pressing need to identify novel pathophysiological pathways relevant to depression that can help to reveal targets for the development of new medications. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) has a regulatory role in the brain's response to stress. Psychological stress may compromise the intestinal barrier, and increased gastrointestinal(More)
Cognitive deficit is a significant symptom in schizophrenic patients. Use of atypical antipsychotics has been demonstrated to improve some cognitive functions in schizophrenics, as well as in patients with dementia. However, side effects like sedation and muscarinic antagonism induced by these drugs have detracted from this improvement. We are interested in(More)
A growing number of studies report antidepressant effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients with major depression. The hypothesis that high frequency (20 Hz) rTMS (HF-rTMS) may speed up and strengthen the therapeutic response to sertraline in MD was tested. Twenty eight patients who had not yet received medication for the(More)
BACKGROUND Our objective is to determine the activity of the antioxidant defense system at admission in patients with early onset first psychotic episodes compared with a control group. METHODS Total antioxidant status (TAS) and lipid peroxidation (LOOH) were determined in plasma. Enzyme activities and total glutathione levels were determined in(More)
BACKGROUND Stressful challenges are associated with variations in immune parameters, including increased innate immunity/inflammation. Among possible mechanisms through which brain monitors peripheral immune responses, toll-like receptors (TLRs) recently emerged as the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. Their expression is modulated in(More)
Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic that demonstrates opioid and monoaminergic properties. Several studies have suggested that tramadol could play a role in mood improvement. Moreover, it has previously been shown that tramadol is effective in the forced swimming test in mice and the learned helplessness model in rats, two behavioural models predictive(More)
Sensory profiles are heterogeneous in neuropathic pain disorders, and subgroups of patients respond differently to treatment. To further explore this, patients in the COMBO-DN study were prospectively assessed by the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI) at baseline, after initial 8-week therapy with either duloxetine or pregabalin, and after subsequent(More)
Tramadol is a centrally-acting analgesic endowed with opioid, noradrenergic and serotonergic properties. Various data suggest that, in addition to its analgesic effect, tramadol may have antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects. This study investigates, through single-unit extracellular recording techniques, the in vivo effects of tramadol on locus(More)
The hippocampus is a brain area characterized by its high plasticity, observed at all levels of organization: molecular, synaptic, and cellular, the latter referring to the capacity of neural precursors within the hippocampus to give rise to new neurons throughout life. Recent findings suggest that promoter methylation is a plastic process subjected to(More)
The opioid system has been implicated in mood disorders as well as in the mechanism of action of antidepressants. Since the opioid component in venlafaxine (VLX) is still a matter of discussion, we investigated the role of opioid receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of VLX in the forced swimming test in mice. The non-selective opiate antagonist(More)