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The movements of transmembrane segments (TMs) 3 and 6 at the cytoplasmic side of the membrane play an important role in the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors. Here we provide evidence for the existence of an ionic lock that constrains the relative mobility of the cytoplasmic ends of TM3 and TM6 in the inactive state of the beta(2)-adrenergic(More)
The availability of a high-resolution structure of rhodopsin now allows us to reconsider research attempts to understand structure-function relationships in other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). A comparison of the rhodopsin structure with the results of previous sequence analysis and molecular modeling that incorporated experimental results(More)
An Arg present in the third transmembrane domain of all rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors is required for efficient signal transduction. Mutation of this Arg in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor to Gln, His, or Lys abolished or severely impaired agonist-stimulated inositol phosphate generation, consistent with Arg having a role in(More)
The binding site of the dopamine D2 receptor, like that of other homologous G protein-coupled receptors, is contained within a water-accessible crevice formed among its seven membrane-spanning segments. Using the substituted-cysteine accessibility method, we previously mapped the residues in the third, fifth, and seventh membrane-spanning segments that(More)
The changes that lead to activation of G protein-coupled receptors have not been elucidated at the structural level. In this work we report the crystal structures of both ground state and a photoactivated deprotonated intermediate of bovine rhodopsin at a resolution of 4.15 A. In the photoactivated state, the Schiff base linking the chromophore and Lys-296(More)
Previous work in the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor demonstrated critical interactions between Ser-204 and Ser-207 in the fifth membrane-spanning segment and the meta-OH and para-OH, respectively, of catecholamine agonists (Strader, C. D., Candelore, M. R., Hill, W. S., Sigal, I. S., and Dixon, R. A. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 13572-13578). Using the(More)
A conserved helix 2 Asp is required for the proper function of many G-protein-coupled receptors. To reveal the structural basis for the role of this residue, the additive effects of mutations at this locus and at a conserved helix 7 locus were investigated in the 5-HT2A receptor. All mutant receptors studied retained high affinity agonist and antagonist(More)
The environmentally sensitive, sulfhydryl-reactive, fluorescent probe N,N'-dimethyl-N-(iodoacetyl)-N'-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) ethylene-diamine (IANBD) was used as a molecular reporter of agonist-induced conformational changes in the beta(2) adrenergic receptor, a prototype hormone-activated G protein-coupled receptor. In the background of a(More)
The binding site of the dopamine D2 receptor, like that of other homologous G-protein-coupled receptors, is contained within a water-accessible crevice formed among its seven membrane-spanning segments. Using the substituted-cysteine accessibility method, we previously mapped the residues that form the surface of the binding-site crevice in the third and(More)
Activation of the pituitary gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor, a member of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, triggers a cascade of events leading to gonadotropin release and stimulation of the reproductive system. An unusual feature of this receptor, observed in mice, rats, and humans, is the presence of Asn87 in the(More)