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—Analysis of patent citations is a core methodology in the study of knowledge diffusion. However, citations made by patent examiners have not been separately reported, adding unknown noise to the data. We leverage a recent change in the reporting of patent data showing citations added by examiners. The magnitude is high: two-thirds of citations on the(More)
T o what extent do firms go abroad to access technology available in other locations? This paper examines whether and when state technical capabilities attract foreign investment in manufacturing from 1987-1993. We find that on average state R&D intensity does not attract foreign direct investment. Most investing firms are in lower-tech industries and(More)
Working papers are in draft form. This working paper is distributed for purposes of comment and discussion only. It may not be reproduced without permission of the copyright holder. Copies of working papers are available from the author. Abstract Researchers studying innovation increasingly use indicators based on patent citations. However, it is well known(More)
This study looks at the role of internal linkages in highly competitive clusters. Besides serving as a mechanism to source knowledge, we argue that strong internal linkages also represent tighter control over local innovation and higher levels of technological interdependency across locations, which allow firms to increase internalization and reduce the(More)
Working papers are in draft form. This working paper is distributed for purposes of comment and discussion only. It may not be reproduced without permission of the copyright holder. Copies of working papers are available from the author. Abstract We explore the impact of geographically bounded intra-firm spillovers (internal agglomeration economies) and(More)
Adalimumab, an anti-tumour necrosis factor agent, especially used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, has a good safety profile. One of the most common side-effects of adalimumab is the development of autoantibodies. Despite the induction of autoantibodies, the clinical presentation of immune-mediated complications upon adalimumab therapy, including a(More)
Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) may be associated with keratoacanthoma (KA)-like epithelial hyperplasia and dense eosinophilic and neutrophilic infiltrates. Diagnosis in such cases is challenging both clinically and histologically, because the large atypical lymphoid cells may be obscured by the massive infiltrate of eosinophils and(More)
Working papers are in draft form. This working paper is distributed for purposes of comment and discussion only. It may not be reproduced without permission of the copyright holder. Copies of working papers are available from the author. Abstract Learning processes lie at the heart of our understanding of how firms build capabilities to generate and sustain(More)