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Radial glia cells (RGC) are multipotent progenitors that generate neurons and glia during CNS development, and which also served as substrate for neuronal migration. After a lesion, reactive glia are the main contributor to CNS regenerative blockage, although some reactive astrocytes are also able to de-differentiate in situ into radial glia-like cells(More)
During development of the mammalian nervous system, a combination of genetic and environmental factors governs the sequential generation of neurons and glia and the initial establishment of the neural circuitry. Here, we demonstrate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), one of those local acting factors, induces Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP7)(More)
Guidepost cells are essential structures for the establishment of major axonal tracts. How these structures are specified and acquire their axon guidance properties is still poorly understood. Here, we show that in mouse embryos appropriate levels of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (Bmp7), a member of the TGF-β superfamily of secreted proteins, are required(More)
Function of oligodendrocytes (OLs), myelin forming cells in the CNS, is disrupted in demyelinating diseases such as periventricular leukomalacia or multiple sclerosis. It is, thus, important to better understand factors that can affect generation or differentiation of human OLs. In rodents, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is influencing expression of Olig2, a(More)
The complex structure and function of the cerebral cortex critically depend on the balance of excitation and inhibition provided by the pyramidal projection neurons and GABAergic interneurons, respectively. The calretinin-expressing (CalR(+)) cell is a subtype of GABAergic cortical interneurons that is more prevalent in humans than in rodents. In rodents,(More)
Impaired sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is involved in the pathology of cortical formation found in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, its role in the specification of human cortical progenitors is not known. Here, we report that Shh is expressed in the human developing cortex at mid-gestation by radial glia cells (RGCs) and cortical neurons. We used RGC(More)
UNLABELLED Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in preterm infants leads to cerebral inflammation, reduced myelination of the white matter, and neurological deficits. No therapeutic strategy exists against the IVH-induced white matter injury. AMPA-kainate receptor induced excitotoxicity contributes to oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) damage and(More)
The oxygen (O2) concentration is a vital parameter for controlling the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neural stem cells. A prenatal reduction of O2 levels (hypoxia) often leads to cognitive and behavioral defects, attributable to altered neural development. In this study, we analyzed the effects of O2 levels on human cortical progenitors,(More)
Gli repressor formation via Protein kinase A (PKA) activation. In the current study, we generated a chondrocyte-specific knockout mouse strain of Suppressor of Fused (Sufu) and demonstrated that loss of Sufu leads to elevated expression of Hh target genes, Gli1 and Patched 1 (Ptch1), in the growth plate. Histological analysis illustrated an increase of(More)
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