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The oxygen paradox tells us that oxygen is both necessary for aerobic life and toxic to all life forms. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) touch every biological and medical discipline, especially those involving proliferative status, supporting the idea that active oxygen may be increased in tumor cells. In fact, metabolism of oxygen and the resulting toxic(More)
A human brain cDNA clone coding for a novel PDZ-domain protein of 124 amino acids was previously isolated in our laboratory. The protein was termed glutaminase-interacting protein (GIP), because it interacts with the C-terminal region of the human L-type glutaminase (LGA). The pattern of expression and functions of GIP in brain are completely unknown, so(More)
BACKGROUND Glutaminase is expressed in most mammalian tissues and cancer cells, but the regulation of its expression is poorly understood. An essential step to accomplish this goal is the characterization of its species- and cell-specific isoenzyme pattern of expression. Our aim was to identify and characterize transcript variants of the mammalian(More)
The protein glutaminase has been traditionally considered as a mitochondrial enzyme, playing a key role in the energy and nitrogen metabolism of mammalian cells. However, new experimental evidence in the last few years has challenged this simplified view. The recent discovery of novel extramitochondrial localizations, the identification of potential protein(More)
The synthesis of glutamate in brain must be exquisitely regulated because of its harmful potential giving rise to excitotoxic damage. In this sense, a stringent control based on multiple regulatory mechanisms should be expected to be exhibited by the biosynthetic enzymes responsible of glutamate generation, to assure that glutamate is only synthesized at(More)
The expression of glutaminase in glial cells has been a controversial issue and matter of debate for many years. Actually, glutaminase is essentially considered as a neuronal marker in brain. Astrocytes are endowed with efficient and high capacity transport systems to recapture synaptic glutamate which seems to be consistent with the absence of glutaminase(More)
The synthesis of neurotransmitter glutamate in brain is mainly carried out by glutaminase enzymes. This synthesis must be exquisitely regulated because of its harmful potential giving rise to excitotoxic damage. It is noteworthy that two glutaminase isozymes coded by different genes are expressed in the brain of mammals. The need for two genes and two(More)
Mitochondrial glutaminase (GA) plays an essential role in cancer cell metabolism, contributing to biosynthesis, bioenergetics, and redox balance. Humans contain several GA isozymes encoded by the GLS and GLS2 genes, but the specific roles of each in cancer metabolism are still unclear. In this study, glioma SFxL and LN229 cells with silenced isoenzyme(More)
Adaptive limiter control (ALC) and adaptive threshold harvesting (ATH) are two related control methods that have been shown to stabilize fluctuating populations. Large variations in population abundance can threaten the constancy and the persistence stability of ecological populations, which may impede the success and efficiency of managing natural(More)
Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and its actions are related to the behavioral effects of psychostimulant drugs. In the last two decades, basic neuroscience research and preclinical studies with animal models are suggesting a critical role for glutamate transmission in drug reward, reinforcement, and(More)