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We present geographic multicast routing (GMR), a new multicast routing protocol for wireless sensor networks. GMR manages to preserve the good properties of previous geographic unicast routing schemes while being able to efficiently deliver multicast data messages to multiple destinations. It is a fully-localized algorithm (only needs information provided(More)
Geographic Routing (GR) algorithms, require nodes to periodically transmit HELLO messages to allow neighbors know their positions (beaconing mechanism). To reduce the control overhead due to theses messages, beacon-less routing algorithms have recently been proposed. However, existing beacon-less algorithms have not considered realistic physical layers.(More)
BACKGROUND The rising temperature of the world's oceans has become a major threat to coral reefs globally as the severity and frequency of mass coral bleaching and mortality events increase. In 2005, high ocean temperatures in the tropical Atlantic and Caribbean resulted in the most severe bleaching event ever recorded in the basin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL(More)
—We present geographic multicast routing (GMR), a new multicast routing protocol for wireless sensor networks. It is a fully localized algorithm that efficiently delivers multicast data messages to multiple destinations. It does not require any type of flooding throughout the network. Each node propagating a multicast data message needs to select a subset(More)
Coral-algal symbiosis has been a subject of great attention during the last two decades in response to global coral reef decline. However, the occurrence and dispersion of free-living dinoflagellates belonging to the genus Symbiodinium are less documented. Here ecological and molecular evidence is presented demonstrating the existence of demersal(More)
Growth rates of branches of colonies of the gorgonian Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae were monitored for 2 years on a reef at San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Images of 261 colonies were made at 6-month intervals and colony and branch growth analyzed. Branch growth rates differed between colonies and between the time intervals in which the measurements were(More)
Seamount-associated faunas are often considered highly endemic but isolation and diversification processes leading to such endemism have been poorly documented at those depths. Likewise, species delimitation and phylogenetic studies in deep-sea organisms remain scarce, due to the difficulty in obtaining samples, and sometimes controversial. The phylogenetic(More)
Most usage scenarios for ad hoc and sensor networks require some degree of one-to-many or many-to-many interactions. In particular, for the case of sensor networks there is a number of scenarios in which a node has to send the same data to multiple destinations. Given that sensor networks have very limited resources, multicasting is a very interesting(More)
Despite the relative simplicity of their modular growth, marine invertebrates such as arborescent gorgonian octocorals (Octocorallia: Cnidaria) generate complex colonial forms. Colony form in these taxa is a consequence of modular (polyp) replication, and if there is a tight integration among modular and supramodular traits (e.g. polyp aperture, inter-polyp(More)
BACKGROUND Colonial invertebrates such as corals exhibit nested levels of modularity, imposing a challenge to the depiction of their morphological evolution. Comparisons among diverse Caribbean gorgonian corals suggest decoupling of evolution at the polyp vs. branch/internode levels. Thus, evolutionary change in polyp form or size (the colonial module sensu(More)