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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
Local interneurons in the Drosophila antennal lobe are thought to play important roles in shaping odor responses. However, the physiological properties of excitatory local interneurons (eLNs) and their connectivity in the antennal lobe remain unclear. We first characterized the firing patterns of krasavietz-Gal4-labeled eLNs (krasavietz eLNs) in response to(More)
Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is a ubiquitous process in eukaryotic cells that is integrally involved in various aspects of cellular and organismal physiology. The morphological hallmark of autophagy is the formation of double-membrane cytosolic vesicles, autophagosomes, which sequester cytoplasmic cargo and deliver it to the lysosome or vacuole.(More)
Autophagy is an innate immune defense mechanism against various intracellular bacterial pathogens, such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium), Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri. S. typhimurium uses type three secretion systems (T3SSs) to invade mammalian cells and replicate in Salmonella-containing vacuoles (SCVs). A small(More)
Autophagy is a cellular process that targets proteins, lipids and organelles to lysosomes for degradation, but it has also been shown to combat infection with various pathogenic bacteria. In turn, bacteria have developed diverse strategies to avoid autophagy by interfering with autophagy signalling or the autophagy machinery and, in some cases, they even(More)
Presynaptic differentiation of axons plays a fundamental role in the establishment of neuronal connectivity. However, the mechanisms that govern presynaptic differentiation in the brain remain largely to be elucidated. We report that knockdown of the transcription factor MEF2A in primary neurons and importantly in the rat cerebellar cortex in vivo robustly(More)
Intellectual disability is a prevalent disorder that remains incurable. Mutations of the X-linked protein PHF6 cause the intellectual disability disorder Börjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome (BFLS). However, the biological role of PHF6 relevant to BFLS pathogenesis has remained unknown. We report that knockdown of PHF6 profoundly impairs neuronal migration in(More)
Rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most devastating pathogens in rice. Avirulence genes in this fungus share a gene-for-gene relationship with the resistance genes in its host rice. Although numerous studies have shown that rice blast R-genes are extremely diverse and evolve rapidly in their host populations, little is known about the(More)
Autophagy plays an important role in immunity to microbial pathogens. The autophagy system can target bacteria in phagosomes, promoting phagosome maturation and preventing pathogen escape into the cytosol. Recently, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling from phagosomes was found to initiate their targeting by the autophagy system, but the mechanism by which(More)
In response to stress conditions (such as nutrient limitation or accumulation of damaged organelles) and certain pathological situations, eukaryotic cells use autophagy as a survival mechanism. During nutrient stress the main purpose of autophagy is to degrade cytoplasmic materials within the lysosome/vacuole lumen and generate an internal nutrient pool(More)