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Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, such as the analgesic compounds morphine and codeine, and the antibacterial agents berberine, palmatine, and magnoflorine, are synthesized from tyrosine in the Papaveraceae, Berberidaceae, Ranunculaceae, Magnoliaceae, and many other plant families. It is difficult to produce alkaloids on a large scale under the strict control(More)
The secondary metabolites of higher plants include diverse chemicals, such as alkaloids, isoprenoids and phenolic compounds (phenylpropanoids and flavonoids). Although these compounds are widely used in human health and nutrition, at present they are mainly obtained by extraction from plants and extraction yields are low because most of these metabolites(More)
Oil bodies (OBs) are the intracellular particles derived from oilseeds. These OBs store lipids as a carbon resource, and have been exploited for a variety of industrial applications including biofuels. Oleosin and caleosin are the common OB structural proteins which are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and OB-based pharmaceutical(More)
Although sperm hyaluronidase is thought to play an important role in mammalian fertilization, the molecular function underlying these steps remains largely unknown. In mouse models, sperm-specific SPAM1 and HYAL5 hyaluronidase are believed to function in both sperm penetration of the cumulus matrix and sperm-ZP binding. However, gene-targeting studies for(More)
Potassium transporters belonging to the KT/HAK/KUP family play an important role in plant growth, development, mineral nutrition, and stress adaptation. In this study, we identified 19 KT/HAK/KUP family genes in tomato, distributed on 10 chromosomes, by using bioinformatics methods. A complete overview of the KT/HAK/KUP (SlHAK) genes in tomato is presented,(More)
Dendropanax morbifera Léveille, an endemic species in Korea, is best known as a tree that produces a resinous sap. Although D. morbifera is used in folk medicine, its biological activities are poorly understood. In this study, the methanolic extracts of D. morbifera branches, debarked stems, bark, and two different stages of leaves were evaluated for(More)
Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum L.) is a wild berry commonly found in the northern hemisphere. Crowberry fruits have been suggested as good resources for functional applications in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, but the high polyphenolic content in crowberry leaves also indicates crowberry aerial parts as potential dietary health supplements. In(More)
This study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects from the extract, fractions, and isolated compounds of sea buckthorn leaves. Six compounds, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-(6''-O-coumaryl) glycoside, 1-feruloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin(More)
Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme that catalyses the conversion of l-glutamate into γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is a four-carbon non-protein amino acid present in all organisms. Although plant GAD plays important roles in GABA biosynthesis, our knowledge concerning GAD gene family members and their evolutionary relationship remains limited.(More)