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Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, such as the analgesic compounds morphine and codeine, and the antibacterial agents berberine, palmatine, and magnoflorine, are synthesized from tyrosine in the Papaveraceae, Berberidaceae, Ranunculaceae, Magnoliaceae, and many other plant families. It is difficult to produce alkaloids on a large scale under the strict control(More)
The secondary metabolites of higher plants include diverse chemicals, such as alkaloids, isoprenoids and phenolic compounds (phenylpropanoids and flavonoids). Although these compounds are widely used in human health and nutrition, at present they are mainly obtained by extraction from plants and extraction yields are low because most of these metabolites(More)
Potassium transporters belonging to the KT/HAK/KUP family play an important role in plant growth, development, mineral nutrition, and stress adaptation. In this study, we identified 19 KT/HAK/KUP family genes in tomato, distributed on 10 chromosomes, by using bioinformatics methods. A complete overview of the KT/HAK/KUP (SlHAK) genes in tomato is presented,(More)
Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum L.) is a wild berry commonly found in the northern hemisphere. Crowberry fruits have been suggested as good resources for functional applications in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, but the high polyphenolic content in crowberry leaves also indicates crowberry aerial parts as potential dietary health supplements. In(More)
Oil bodies (OBs) are the intracellular particles derived from oilseeds. These OBs store lipids as a carbon resource, and have been exploited for a variety of industrial applications including biofuels. Oleosin and caleosin are the common OB structural proteins which are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and OB-based pharmaceutical(More)
Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important proteins involved in the signal transduction of extracellular information to intracellular targets, and play a crucial role in the response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although Arabidopsis MAPKs are used for identification of the putative MAPKs in higher plants, no grapevine MAPK gene nomenclature(More)
PURPOSE This study was done to identify the effects of weight-bearing exercise(WBE) on bone metabolism. METHOD WBE was performed for 12 weeks by healthy college women. Bone-related parameters were measured four times during this period by evaluating the immunoradiometric assay and enzyme immunoassay. Bone mineral densities (BMDs) were measured by dual(More)
OBJECTIVES Dokhwaljihwang-tang, one of the prescriptions in Four Constitution medicine, has been used to treat neurological disorders. This work was aimed to examine the effect of Dokhwaljihwang-tang on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the lesser yang subjects. METHODS The inflammatory(More)
This study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects from the extract, fractions, and isolated compounds of sea buckthorn leaves. Six compounds, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-(6''-O-coumaryl) glycoside, 1-feruloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin(More)
Although sperm hyaluronidase is thought to play an important role in mammalian fertilization, the molecular function underlying these steps remains largely unknown. In mouse models, sperm-specific SPAM1 and HYAL5 hyaluronidase are believed to function in both sperm penetration of the cumulus matrix and sperm-ZP binding. However, gene-targeting studies for(More)