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The FYVE domain associates with phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PtdIns(3)P] in membranes of early endosomes and penetrates bilayers. Here, we detail principles of membrane anchoring and show that the FYVE domain insertion into PtdIns(3)P-enriched membranes and membrane-mimetics is substantially increased in acidic conditions. The EEA1 FYVE domain binds to(More)
The pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of the general receptor for phosphoinositides 1 (GRP1) exhibits specific, high-affinity, reversible binding to phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P(3)) at the plasma membrane, but the nature and extent of the interaction between this bound complex and the surrounding membrane environment remains unclear.(More)
Temporal changes in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels in medullary A1 and A2 neurons and locus coeruleus (LC) cells were studied 6, 12 and 24 h following orchidectomy in rats. Brains from intact controls and sham castrated rats also were evaluated at these same time periods. In situ hybridization histochemistry and quantitative image analysis techniques(More)
Although interleukin (IL)-1 beta activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the mechanisms by which peripheral IL-1 beta acutely stimulates adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secretion are not clear. Recently, the vagus has been implicated in mediating peripheral cytokine signalling of the brain. To investigate a possible central mechanism for(More)
The general receptor for phosphoinositides isoform 1 (GRP1) is recruited to the plasma membrane in response to activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinases and accumulation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)]. GRP1's pleckstrin homology (PH) domain recognizes PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) with high specificity and affinity, however, the precise(More)
In these studies we examined the temporal effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusions of norepinephrine (NE) on plasma LH and on LHRH mRNA levels in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) and in neurons located in the rostral (r), middle (m) and caudal (c) preoptic areas (POA) of ovariectomized, estrogen-treated rats. Thereafter,(More)
Some axon terminals of hypothalamic opiate neurons directly synapse on luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons. To determine whether such synaptic connections affect LHRH neuronal activity, we have examined the profiles and concentrations of LH released in response to intracerebroventricular (icv) norepinephrine (NE, 45 μg) infusions alone or(More)
GABAergic neurons are estimated to make up more than half of the neuronal population of the hypothalamus and they likely account for some of the structural and functional sexual dimorphisms observed in the mammalian brain. We previously reported sex differences in the rate of GABA turnover in discrete hypothalamic structures of adult rats. In the present(More)
The postcastration LH response is greater and somewhat more rapid in male than female rats. We have previously demonstrated that hypothalamic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neuronal activity decreases following gonadectomy in male rats. To investigate whether these same hypothalamic GABA neurons decrease their activity postcastration in female rats,(More)
Morphine not only suppresses norepinephrine-induced increases in LHRH mRNA levels but, in these same animals, it simultaneously amplifies norepinephrine (NE)-induced LH release. These observations suggest that NE may activate parallel mechanisms which independently increase LHRH mRNA levels and LHRH release and suggest that some of these effects could be(More)