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Detailed analysis of neuronal network architecture requires the development of new methods. Here we present strategies to visualize synaptic circuits by genetically labelling neurons with multiple, distinct colours. In Brainbow transgenes, Cre/lox recombination is used to create a stochastic choice of expression between three or more fluorescent proteins(More)
Many lines of evidence suggest that memory in the mammalian brain is stored with distinct spatiotemporal patterns. Despite recent progresses in identifying neuronal populations involved in memory coding, the synapse-level mechanism is still poorly understood. Computational models and electrophysiological data have shown that functional clustering of(More)
The complete connectional map (connectome) of a neural circuit is essential for understanding its structure and function. Such maps have only been obtained in Caenorhabditis elegans. As an attempt at solving mammalian circuits, we reconstructed the connectomes of six interscutularis muscles from adult transgenic mice expressing fluorescent proteins in all(More)
This paper presents a new algorithm for extracting the centerlines of the axons from a 3D data stack collected by a confocal laser scanning microscope. Recovery of neuronal structures from such datasets is critical for quantitatively addressing a range of neurobiological questions such as the manner in which the branching pattern of motor neurons change(More)
Clearance of cellular debris is a critical feature of the developing nervous system, as evidenced by the severe neurological consequences of lysosomal storage diseases in children. An important developmental process, which generates considerable cellular debris, is synapse elimination, in which many axonal branches are pruned. The fate of these pruned(More)
We introduce a method for large scale reconstruction of complex bundles of neural processes from fluorescent image stacks. We imaged yellow fluorescent protein labeled axons that innervated a whole muscle, as well as dendrites in cerebral cortex, in transgenic mice, at the diffraction limit with a confocal microscope. Each image stack was digitally(More)
The comprehensive characterization of neuronal morphology requires tracing extensive axonal and dendritic arbors imaged with light microscopy into digital reconstructions. Considerable effort is ongoing to automate this greatly labor-intensive and currently rate-determining process. Experimental data in the form of manually traced digital reconstructions(More)
The branching patterns of axons and dendrites are fundamental structural properties that affect the synaptic connectivity of axons. Although today three-dimensional images of fluorescently labeled processes can be obtained to study axonal branching, there are no robust methods of tracing individual axons. This paper describes a repulsive force based snake(More)
One approach to super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, termed stochastic localization microscopy, relies on the nanometer scale spatial localization of individual fluorescent emitters that stochastically label specific features of the specimen. The precision of emitter localization is an important determinant of the resulting image resolution but is(More)
The morphological properties of axons, such as their branching patterns and oriented structures, are of great interest for biologists in the study of the synaptic connectivity of neurons. In these studies, researchers use triple immunofluorescent confocal microscopy to record morphological changes of neuronal processes. Three-dimensional (3D) microscopy(More)