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The mechanism by which the 8q24 MYC enhancer region, including cancer-associated variant rs6983267, increases cancer risk is unknown due to the lack of protein-coding genes at 8q24.21. Here we report the identification of long noncoding RNAs named cancer-associated region long noncoding RNAs (CARLos) in the 8q24 region. The expression of one of the long(More)
Phosphatidic acid (PA), the product of a PLD-mediated reaction, is a lipid second messenger that participates in various intracellular signaling events and is known to regulate a growing list of signaling proteins. We found that Bcl-2 was upregulated by PA treatment in HeLa cells. However, how PA upregulates Bcl-2 expression has not yet been studied. In(More)
Activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) induces mesenchymal (MES) transdifferentiation and radioresistance in glioma stem cells (GSCs), but molecular mechanisms for NF-κB activation in GSCs are currently unknown. Here, we report that mixed lineage kinase 4 (MLK4) is overexpressed in MES but not proneural (PN) GSCs. Silencing MLK4 suppresses self-renewal,(More)
Quality control of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is vital in preventing mutagenesis. Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), a repair process predominant in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, rejoins DSBs either accurately or with errors, but the mechanisms controlling its fidelity are poorly understood. Here we show that BRCA1, a tumor suppressor, enhances(More)
The purpose of this study was to identify the role of phospholipase D2 (PLD2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. LPS enhanced NO synthesis and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in macrophage cell line, Raw 264.7 cells. When Raw 264.7 cells were stimulated with LPS, the expressions of PLDs were increased. Thus,(More)
Replication fork stalling and collapse is a major source of genome instability leading to neoplastic transformation or cell death. Such stressed replication forks can be conservatively repaired and restarted using homologous recombination (HR) or non-conservatively repaired using micro-homology mediated end joining (MMEJ). HR repair of stressed forks is(More)
Hippocalcin is a Ca2+-binding protein that is expressed mainly in pyramidal nerve cells of the hippocampus. However, its functions and mechanism in the brain remain unclear. To elucidate the role of hippocalcin, we used a conditionally immortalized hippocampal cell line (H19-7) and showed that bFGF treatment increased the expression of hippocalcin during(More)
Phospholipase D (PLD) is implicated in a variety of physiological processes that reveal it to be a member of the signal transducing phospholipases. We found that PLD1 is activated when basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) stimulates neurite outgrowth of an immortalized hippocampal cell line (H19-7). Overexpression of PLD1 in H19-7 cells dramatically(More)
Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to generate phosphatidic acid (PA) and choline. There are at least two PLD isozymes, PLD1 and PLD2. Genetic and pharmacological approaches implicate both PLD isozymes in a diverse range of cellular processes, including receptor signaling, membrane transport control, and actin cytoskeleton(More)
The purpose of this study was to identify the role of phospholipase D1 (PLD1) in Der f 2-induced interleukin (IL)-13 production. The major house dust mite allergen, Der f 2, increased PLD activity in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B), and dominant negative PLD1 or PLD1 siRNA decreased Der f 2-induced IL-13 expression and production. Treatment of(More)