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We report the synthesis, characterization, and protein sensing capabilities of M13 bacteriophage-DNA bioconjugates. DNA oligonucleotides were conjugated to M13 through acyl hydrazone linkages. In one case, DNAzymes retained their catalytic ability when anchored to the virus coat, and in a separate study, the dynamic nature of the hydrazone allowed for(More)
Lignocellulosic biomass are attractive feedstocks for 2,3-butanediol production due to their abundant supply and low price. During the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass, various byproducts are formed and their effects on 2,3-butanediol production were not sufficiently studied compared to ethanol production. Therefore, the effects of compounds derived(More)
BACKGROUND Use of lignocellulosic biomass has received attention lately because it can be converted into various versatile chemical compounds by biological processes. In this study, a two-step pretreatment with dilute sulfuric acid and aqueous ammonia was performed efficiently on rice straw to obtain fermentable sugar. The soaking in aqueous ammonia process(More)
Sensitive protein detection and accurate identification continues to be in great demand for disease screening in clinical and laboratory settings. For these diagnostics to be of clinical value, it is necessary to develop sensors that have high sensitivity but favorable cost-to-benefit ratios. However, many of these sensing platforms are thermally unstable(More)
Trehalase (EC 3.2.1.28) of the bound type was purified as an electrophoretically homogeneous protein from adult honeybees by fractionation with ammonium sulfate, hydrophobic chromatography, and DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B, CM-Sepharose CL-6B, butyl-Toyopearl 650M, and p-aminophenyl beta-glucoside Sepharose 4B column chromatographies. The enzyme preparation was(More)
For early detection of many diseases, it is critical to be able to diagnose small amounts of biomarkers in blood or serum. One of the most widely used sensing assays is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which typically uses detection monoclonal antibodies conjugated to enzymes to produce colorimetric signals. To increase the overall(More)
Sulfated polysaccharides (SP) isolated from freshwater green algae, Spirogyra neglecta (Hassall) Kützing, and fractionated SPs were examined to investigate their molecular characteristics and immunomodulatory activity. The crude and fractionated SPs (F1, F2, and F3) consisted mostly of carbohydrates (68.5-85.3%), uronic acids (3.2-4.9%), and sulfates(More)
One of the most challenging but potentially rewarding goals in nanoscience is the ability to direct the assembly of nanoscale materials into functional architectures with high yields, minimal steps, and inexpensive procedures. Despite their unique physical properties, the inherent difficulties of engineering wafer-level arrays of useful devices from(More)