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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is a ubiquitous process in eukaryotic cells that is integrally involved in various aspects of cellular and organismal physiology. The morphological hallmark of autophagy is the formation of double-membrane cytosolic vesicles, autophagosomes, which sequester cytoplasmic cargo and deliver it to the lysosome or vacuole.(More)
Autophagy plays an important role in immunity to microbial pathogens. The autophagy system can target bacteria in phagosomes, promoting phagosome maturation and preventing pathogen escape into the cytosol. Recently, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling from phagosomes was found to initiate their targeting by the autophagy system, but the mechanism by which(More)
Local interneurons in the Drosophila antennal lobe are thought to play important roles in shaping odor responses. However, the physiological properties of excitatory local interneurons (eLNs) and their connectivity in the antennal lobe remain unclear. We first characterized the firing patterns of krasavietz-Gal4-labeled eLNs (krasavietz eLNs) in response to(More)
Autophagy is a degradative pathway that involves delivery of cytoplasmic components, including proteins, organelles, and invaded microbes to the lysosome for digestion. Autophagy is implicated in the pathology of various human diseases. The association of autophagy to inflammatory bowel diseases is consistent with recent discoveries of its role in immunity.(More)
Autophagy is a cellular process that targets proteins, lipids and organelles to lysosomes for degradation, but it has also been shown to combat infection with various pathogenic bacteria. In turn, bacteria have developed diverse strategies to avoid autophagy by interfering with autophagy signalling or the autophagy machinery and, in some cases, they even(More)
Autophagy mediates the degradation of cytoplasmic components in eukaryotic cells and plays a key role in immunity. The mechanism of autophagosome formation is not clear. Here we examined two potential membrane sources for antibacterial autophagy: the ER and mitochondria. DFCP1, a marker of specialized ER domains known as 'omegasomes,' associated with(More)
Deregulation of synaptic plasticity may contribute to the pathogenesis of developmental cognitive disorders. In particular, exaggerated mGluR-dependent LTD is featured in fragile X syndrome, but the mechanisms that regulate mGluR-LTD remain incompletely understood. We report that conditional knockout of Cdh1, the key regulatory subunit of the ubiquitin(More)
As a conserved cellular degradative pathway in eukaryotes, autophagy relieves cells from various types of stress. There are different forms of autophagy, and the ongoing studies of the molecular mechanisms and cellular functions of these processes are unraveling their significant roles in human health. Currently, the best-studied of these pathways is(More)
We show that the genomes of maize, sorghum, and brachypodium contain genes that, when transformed into rice, confer resistance to rice blast disease. The genes are resistance genes (R genes) that encode proteins with nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains (NBS-LRR proteins). By using criteria associated with rapid molecular(More)