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When vertebrate cells exit mitosis various cellular structures are reorganized to build functional interphase cells 1. This depends on Cdk1 (cyclin dependent kinase 1) inactivation and subsequent dephosphorylation of its substrates 2–4. Members of the protein phosphatase 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A) families can dephosphorylate Cdk1 substrates in biochemical(More)
In dopaminoceptive neurons, dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32) plays a central role in integrating the effects of dopamine and other neurotransmitters. Phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Thr-34 by protein kinase A results in inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), and phosphorylation at Thr-75 by Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5)(More)
The different oligomers composing the high molecular weight calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) holoenzyme, previously shown to be transiently activated during Xenopus oocyte maturation, migrate on SDS-PAGE as proteins of 83, 72, 62, 56, and 52 kDa and have all been cloned. The holoenzyme consists of the CaMKII isoforms gammaB, gammaC,(More)
We have shown previously that brain tissue contains protein kinases which can phosphorylate tau protein to a state reminiscent of the pathological state of Alzheimer paired helical filaments (PHFs); these include proline-directed kinases which phosphorylate SP or TP motifs (such as MAP kinase and GSK-3) [Drewes et al. (1992); Mandelkow et al. (1992)], as(More)
BACKGROUND Tau phosphorylation and dephosphorylation regulate in a poorly understood manner its physiological role of microtubule stabilization, and equally its integration in Alzheimer disease (AD) related fibrils. A specific phospho-pattern will result from the balance between kinases and phosphatases. The heterotrimeric Protein Phosphatase type 2A(More)
PTPA, an essential and specific activator of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), functions as a peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PPIase). We present here the crystal structures of human PTPA and of the two yeast orthologs (Ypa1 and Ypa2), revealing an all alpha-helical protein fold that is radically different from other PPIases. The protein is organized into two(More)
Functional diversity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) enzymes mainly results from their association with distinct regulatory subunits. To analyze the functions of one such holoenzyme in vivo, we generated mice lacking PR61/B'δ (B56δ), a subunit highly expressed in neural tissues. In PR61/B'δ-null mice the microtubule-associated protein tau becomes(More)
BACKGROUND Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine/threonine-specific phosphatase displaying vital functions in growth and development through its role in various signalling pathways. PP2A holoenzymes comprise a core dimer composed of a catalytic C and a structural A subunit, which can associate with a variable B-type subunit. The importance of the B-type(More)
Transfer of the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) degradation plasmids pEMT1 and pJP4 from an introduced donor strain, Pseudomonas putida UWC3, to the indigenous bacteria of two different horizons (A horizon, depth of 0 to 30 cm; B horizon, depth of 30 to 60 cm) of a 2,4-D-contaminated soil was investigated as a means of bioaugmentation. When the soil(More)
Two protein phosphatase activities were characterized in the germinal vesicle of Xenopus laevis oocytes after manual dissection of the nucleus. One enzyme can be classified as an active form of the ATP + Mg-dependent (AMD) phosphatase, the other as a polycation-stimulated (PCS) phosphatase. The activity of the PCS phosphatase is localized exclusively in the(More)