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When vertebrate cells exit mitosis various cellular structures are reorganized to build functional interphase cells 1. This depends on Cdk1 (cyclin dependent kinase 1) inactivation and subsequent dephosphorylation of its substrates 2–4. Members of the protein phosphatase 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A) families can dephosphorylate Cdk1 substrates in biochemical(More)
In dopaminoceptive neurons, dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32) plays a central role in integrating the effects of dopamine and other neurotransmitters. Phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Thr-34 by protein kinase A results in inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), and phosphorylation at Thr-75 by Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5)(More)
To elucidate the specific biological role of the yeast homologues of PTPA (phosphatase 2A phosphatase activator), Ypa1 and Ypa2 (where Ypa stands for yeast phosphatase activator), in the regulation of PP2A (protein phosphatase 2A), we investigated the physical interaction of both Ypa proteins with the catalytic subunit of the different yeast PP2A-like(More)
We have shown previously that brain tissue contains protein kinases which can phosphorylate tau protein to a state reminiscent of the pathological state of Alzheimer paired helical filaments (PHFs); these include proline-directed kinases which phosphorylate SP or TP motifs (such as MAP kinase and GSK-3) [Drewes et al. (1992); Mandelkow et al. (1992)], as(More)
The different oligomers composing the high molecular weight calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) holoenzyme, previously shown to be transiently activated during Xenopus oocyte maturation, migrate on SDS-PAGE as proteins of 83, 72, 62, 56, and 52 kDa and have all been cloned. The holoenzyme consists of the CaMKII isoforms gammaB, gammaC,(More)
Functional diversity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) enzymes mainly results from their association with distinct regulatory subunits. To analyze the functions of one such holoenzyme in vivo, we generated mice lacking PR61/B'δ (B56δ), a subunit highly expressed in neural tissues. In PR61/B'δ-null mice the microtubule-associated protein tau becomes(More)
PTPA, an essential and specific activator of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), functions as a peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PPIase). We present here the crystal structures of human PTPA and of the two yeast orthologs (Ypa1 and Ypa2), revealing an all alpha-helical protein fold that is radically different from other PPIases. The protein is organized into two(More)
BACKGROUND Tau phosphorylation and dephosphorylation regulate in a poorly understood manner its physiological role of microtubule stabilization, and equally its integration in Alzheimer disease (AD) related fibrils. A specific phospho-pattern will result from the balance between kinases and phosphatases. The heterotrimeric Protein Phosphatase type 2A(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV), a herpesvirus, is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. When studying hyper-immediate-early events after contact between CMV virions and the cell membrane, we observed a hypophosphorylation of cellular proteins within 10 min. This can be explained in part by our finding that purified CMV(More)
BACKGROUND Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine/threonine-specific phosphatase displaying vital functions in growth and development through its role in various signalling pathways. PP2A holoenzymes comprise a core dimer composed of a catalytic C and a structural A subunit, which can associate with a variable B-type subunit. The importance of the B-type(More)