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BACKGROUND Reported associations between gestational tobacco exposure and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE We estimated the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and ASDs among children 8 years of age. METHODS This population-based case-cohort study included 633,989 children, identified using publicly(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and associated characteristics among 8-year-old children. METHODS This is an ongoing active, population-based surveillance program conducted in South Carolina as part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Autism and Developmental Disabilities(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the symptoms of pelvic organ prolapse and the stage of support as determined by the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system. STUDY DESIGN Four hundred ninety-seven women who were seen for annual gynecologic examinations were recruited. Subjects underwent a pelvic examination(More)
Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a novel(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiac surgical procedures can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, it has been recognized that statins might induce multiple biologic effects independent of lipid lowering that could potentially ameliorate adverse surgical outcomes. Accordingly, this study tested the central hypothesis that pretreatment with statins(More)
OBJECTIVE Chronic joint pain is a major cause of pain and disability. Exercise and self-management have short-term benefits, but few studies follow participants for more than 6 months. We investigated the long-term (up to 30 months) clinical and cost effectiveness of a rehabilitation program combining self-management and exercise: Enabling Self-Management(More)
BACKGROUND Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often co-occur with other developmental, psychiatric, neurologic, or medical diagnoses. OBJECTIVE This study examined co-occurring non-ASD diagnoses and symptoms in a population-based cohort of 8 year olds identified with ASD. METHOD Data on 2,568 children meeting surveillance case definition for ASD were(More)
OBJECTIVE Hypercholesterolemia is an early risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors might be involved in this disorder. Our objective was to determine the risk of mild cognitive impairment in a population of patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, a condition involving LDL receptor dysfunction and(More)
BACKGROUND The African American (AA) population has a lower risk for developing multiple sclerosis (MS) than Caucasian (CA) population; however, the disease tends to be more severe with early disability in AA. The reason underlying the discrepancy in disease severity is not yet understood, and it could be caused by different response to disease modifying(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and case characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) among 4-year-olds and to compare findings to previous prevalence estimates for 8-year-olds in the same geographic area. METHODS South Carolina (SC) has been a participant in the Centers for Disease Control and(More)