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MicroRNA (miRNA)-deficient helper T cells exhibit abnormal IFN-γ production and decreased proliferation. However, the contributions of individual miRNAs to this phenotype remain poorly understood. We conducted a screen for miRNA function in primary T cells and identified individual miRNAs that rescue the defects associated with miRNA deficiency. Multiple(More)
DNA topoisomerase I is an essential nuclear enzyme involved in resolving the torsional stress associated with DNA replication, transcription, and chromatin condensation. Here we report the discovery of a seizure-suppressor mutant, top1(JS), which suppresses seizures in a Drosophila model of human epilepsy. A P-element mutagenesis screen using easily shocked(More)
The envelope glycoprotein trimer mediates HIV-1 entry into cells. The trimer is flexible, fluctuating between closed and more open conformations and sometimes sampling the fully open, CD4-bound form. We hypothesized that conformational flexibility and transient exposure of non-neutralizing, immunodominant epitopes could hinder the induction of broadly(More)
An individual's T cell repertoire dynamically encodes their pathogen exposure history. To determine whether pathogen exposure signatures can be identified by documenting public T cell receptors (TCRs), we profiled the T cell repertoire of 666 subjects with known cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus by immunosequencing. We developed a statistical classification(More)
Generation of a robust immunological memory response is essential for protection on subsequent encounters with the same pathogen. The magnitude and quality of the memory CD8 T-cell population are shaped and influenced by the strength and duration of the initial antigenic stimulus as well as by inflammatory cytokines. Although chemokine receptors have been(More)
Generating long-term humoral immunity is a crucial component of successful vaccines and requires interactions between T cells and B cells in germinal centers (GC). In GCs, a specialized subset of CD4+ helper T cells, called T follicular helper cells (Tfh), provide help to B cells; this help directs the magnitude and quality of the antibody response. Tfh(More)
Signaling via the inducible costimulator ICOS fuels the stepwise development of follicular helper T cells (TFH cells). However, a signaling pathway unique to ICOS has not been identified. We found here that the kinase TBK1 associated with ICOS via a conserved motif, IProx, that shares homology with the tumor-necrosis-factor receptor (TNFR)-associated(More)
Natural infections expose the immune system to escalating antigen and inflammation over days to weeks, whereas nonlive vaccines are single bolus events. We explored whether the immune system responds optimally to antigen kinetics most similar to replicating infections, rather than a bolus dose. Using HIV antigens, we found that administering a given total(More)
Inducible costimulator (ICOS) signaling fuels the stepwise development of T follicular helper (TFH) cells. However, a signaling pathway unique to ICOS has not been identified. We show that TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) associates with ICOS via a conserved motif, IProx, which shares homology with tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factors, TRAF2(More)
In the version of this article initially published online, the interferon (IFN-α) in the fourth sentence of the abstract is incorrect. That section should read “the locus encoding interferon-γ (IFN-γ)....” Also, sentence two in paragraph three of the introduction includes a typographical error (“zand”); that should read “IL-18 and IL-1....” The errors have(More)