Joy S. Frank

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Recent data support the hypothesis that the fatty streak develops in response to specific phospholipids contained in LDL that become trapped in the artery wall and become oxidized as a result of exposure to the oxidative waste of the artery wall cells. The antioxidants present within both LDL and the microenvironments in which LDL is trapped function to(More)
The clinical events resulting from atherosclerosis are directly related to the oxidation of lipids in LDLs that become trapped in the extracellular matrix of the subendothelial space. These oxidized lipids activate an NF kappa B-like transcription factor and induce the expression of genes containing NF kappa B binding sites. The protein products of these(More)
The structures present in the rabbit myocardial interstitium have been defined and quantified. Stereological methods were used for the quantification. The extracellular space contains abundant ground substance (23%) distributed in a homogeneous mat throughout the space and within the T tubules. The remainder of the space contains 59% blood vessels, 6%(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the ultrastructure of the sarcolemma in the normal and severely anoxic rabbit heart with the technique of freeze-fracture. Severe anoxia and subsequent reoxygenation cause a significant decrease (31%) in intramembranous particles (IMP) in the P face of the membrane and a 25% decrease in the E face. P face IMP's are(More)
Na+-Ca2+ exchange is the major pathway of Ca2+ efflux during excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle. The Na+-Ca2+ exchanger is present in cardiac transverse tubules with an apparent high density (Frank, J.S., Mottino, G., Reid, D., Molday, R. S., and Philipson, K.D. (1992) J. Cell Biol. 117, 337-345). The mechanism for this localization is(More)
We have examined the role of conserved regions and acidic or basic residues located in the putative transmembrane segments of the cardiac sarcolemmal Na+-Ca2+ exchanger by site-directed mutagenesis. The alpha-1 and alpha-2 repeats are transmembrane regions of internal similarity, which are highly conserved among Na+-Ca2+ exchangers. We find that Na+-Ca2+(More)
The subcellular localization of dystrophin was examined in adult rabbit and rat cardiac myocytes with immunofluorescence and at higher resolution with immunogold. The aim was to resolve the conflicting reports on the presence of dystrophin in the transverse tubules (T tubules) of cardiac muscle and to determine its distribution in neonatal myocytes before(More)
Ankyrins are a multigene family of proteins that function as adapters between the cytoskeleton and trans-membrane proteins, such as ion channels. Previous studies have shown the linkage between ankyrin and ionic transport proteins such as Na+-K+ ATPase, voltage-dependent Na+ channels and Ca2+ channels. In the present study, we have investigated the(More)
BACKGROUND These studies were designed to determine the mechanism of action of an oral apolipoprotein (apo) A-I mimetic peptide, D-4F, which previously was shown to dramatically reduce atherosclerosis in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS Twenty minutes after 500 microg of D-4F was given orally to apoE-null mice, small cholesterol-containing particles (CCPs) of 7(More)
With scanning confocal microscopy we obtained three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the transverse tubular system (t-system) of rabbit ventricular cells. We accomplished this by labeling the t-system with dextran linked to fluorescein or, alternatively, wheat-germ agglutinin conjugated to an Alexa fluor dye. Image processing and visualization techniques(More)