Learn More
BACKGROUND In 1979, Zelen described a trial method of randomising participants before acquiring consent in order to enhance recruitment to clinical trials. The method has been criticised ethically due to lack of consent and scientifically due to high crossover rates. This paper reviews recent published trials using this method and describes the reasons(More)
BACKGROUND Dementia is an important health and social care problem and is one of the main causes of disability in later life. The number of families affected by dementia will dramatically increase over the next five decades. Despite the implications for health and social care services in the future, the overwhelming majority of care for people with dementia(More)
BACKGROUND Rest-activity and sleep-wake cycles are controlled by the endogenous circadian rhythm generated by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Degenerative changes in the SCN appear to be a biological basis for circadian disturbances in people with dementia, and might be reversed by stimulation of the SCN by light. OBJECTIVES The(More)
BACKGROUND Postnatal depression (PND) has a significant impact on maternal mental health. Systematic reviews provide a useful tool to summarise research, however little is known about the quantity and quality of existing systematic reviews of prevalence and incidence of PND. OBJECTIVE The objective of this paper is to provide a systematic overview of(More)
BACKGROUND the evaluation of the determinants of change over time in health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in older people is limited. This study aims to identify patterns of change in HR-QoL over 7 years and their determinants using data from the British Women's Heart and Health Study, a representative sample of older women (n = 4286). METHODS(More)
RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The accurate reporting of the trial methodology and results is essential for accurate judgement on the quality of the research. This review aims to assess the impact of the adequacy of allocation concealment on treatment effect estimates. METHODS A search was performed in MEDLINE (via the Ovid platform) to identify all(More)
BACKGROUND Smoking during pregnancy has been consistently associated with risk of problem behaviour in offspring. There is debate about whether this association reflects a teratological effect or is a marker for problematic maternal characteristics. We test these "competing" hypotheses by examining whether (1) exposure is associated with an early risk(More)
BACKGROUND It is widely stated that stroke is the most common cause of severe disability. We aimed to examine whether this claim is supported by any evidence. METHODS We conducted secondary analysis of the Office of National Statistics 1996 Survey of Disability, United Kingdom. This was a multistage stratified random sample of 8683 noninstitutionalized(More)
BACKGROUND Observational and some experimental data suggest that low intake of vitamin K may be associated with an increased risk of fracture. OBJECTIVE To assess whether oral vitamin K (phytonadione and menaquinone) supplementation can reduce bone loss and prevent fractures. DATA SOURCES The search included the following electronic databases: MEDLINE(More)